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Age mental hygiene

In life there are age periods, representing an increased number of problems for psychiatry. This is the age of the organism growth and development of the mental sphere and late age with its processes of biological and psychological adjustment.
Decided to allocate the following ages.
Infancy - up to 1 year
A child up to 12 years
Adolescence (adolescence) - from 12 to 16 years
Youth from 16 to 22 years
Maturity - from 22 to 50 years old inclusive
Reverse development-51-70 years
Old age is over 70 years
Currently there is a tendency to expand the boundaries of adolescence to 17, 18 or even 20 years, i.e. to consider teenage transitional stage between childhood with its total dependence on senior and adult age with its capacity for independent living, reproduction and upbringing of offspring.
Tasks of mental health in relation to child, adolescent and youth age can be solved only on the basis of knowledge about the laws of growth and development of the organism, age anatomical and physiological features of the man. The maturation of the psyche undergoes a number of stages, each of which has its own distinctive features. The most important stages of development of the mind are the following:
1st - motor - up to 1 year
2nd-course - 3 years
3rd - affective - from 3 to 12 years
4th - ideational - from 12 to 14-16 years
In the selection of stages and the limitation of their time there is artificial, because the mentality of the person develops a whole, in all its spheres. However, in accordance with the data of Russian psychology main content of the mental development is the change in the functional structure of consciousness, the alteration at each stage of ontogenesis. Here, each time a dominant position is one of a mental process. The designation of phases highlights the maturity level of the psyche, its new, the most typical quality achieved to a certain age. This should be considered to create optimal conditions for the development of the psyche and personality formation.
At the organization of psychological prevention must be taken into account: 1) the age peculiarities of the psyche; 2) the uneven uneven mental development; 3) the fact faster mental development in the first years of life; 4) the typological peculiarities of mental response children. During the development of inherited the program is deployed in conditions of influence of the external environment, which may be at different stages deterrent enhancing or modifying. The task of mental health and psychological prevention is to make these effects are most relevant to current generations genetic program.
Early childhood and issues of mental health,
A child is born with a certain set of instincts and of course-reflex reactions vitally important stimuli: hunger, pain, etc. On the basis of these reactions are conditioned reflexesthat form the basis of all mental activity of an adult. With 3-4 months begin full operations of all the senses, non-directed first of motion assume the nature of appropriate responses to irritation analyzers. Baby gets tired easily, sleeps a lot, that protects it from overload impressions. However, in the situation, poor external influences, the full development can not be. Recently much attention to itself attracts a question about the role of the contact with the mother for the development of the child's mind. It has been suggested that the mother for the baby is necessary not only because it provides the breast milk, but also as a source of vital stimuli.
At the beginning of our century, special attention was attracted by the fact that almost 100% mortality of infants who were in American homes. Isolated from the mother of the children had become apathetic, stopped to eat and sleep, lose weight, weakened. The children were well if they soon returned to their mothers. It was found that the deprivation of contact with the mother leaves the deepest mark, if it falls on the first days, months or years of life. These children, who lived in later in the conditions of a caring, loving relationship to them as adults found signs of psychic infantilism, aggressive reactions, impulsive actions, lack of initiative, they had broken relationships with other people. Similar changes were found in the baby monkeys growing up in isolation, without mother. Such animals were growing weak, looked bleak, feared, they observed attacks of rage or torture. If these females appeared offspring, they were not able to observe the maternal behaviour; to her cubs, they showed aggression, some were tortured them to death.
These and other experiments on animals, monitor the development of children showed that more recent forms of behaviour and the mechanisms that determine the relationship between individuals of the same species, especially family relationships among people are formed on the basis of the experience acquired very early, soon after birth. The Central element of this process is the feeling of love, attachment to the mother, which is then transferred onto other people and in the distant future determines the attitude towards their children. If this link in the education falls, the process of mental development of the child is corrupted.