Psychopathy

Psychopathy - abnormal variants of personality or pathological characters, in which there is a failure of one and the exaggerated development of other properties of character.
Uneven development of individual character properties is disharmony psyche - is the main feature of psychopathy and is already apparent from an early age. It concerns first of all the emotional-volitional qualities of a person with relative preservation of intellectual abilities. Psychopathy arise on the basis of inherent inferiority of the nervous system, which can be heredity, hazards affecting the embryo and the fetus, birth trauma , and so on, But the formation and expression of psychopathy is largely under the influence of the external environment, i.e. improper upbringing, negative influences of the environment, psychogenic injuries, somatic diseases.
From mental retardation (see) psychopathy is different intellectual integrity; mental disorders - the lack of increasing of the defect of the individual; from neurosis - its irreversibility. From true or constitutional psychopathy is necessary to distinguish psychopathic States - persistent anomalies problems that arise during the life after various diseases (brain injury, epidemic encephalitis, schizophrenia, infectious diseases and so on).
Forms of psychopathy emit mainly on the basis of the prevalence of certain pathological traits.
Asthenic psychopaths are characterized by high sensitivity, shyness, hesitation, and easy mental and physical exhaustion. They easily, albeit briefly annoyed, incapable of long-term efforts and diligent work. Frequent sleep disturbances, violations of appetite and activity of the gastrointestinal tract force them to pay close attention to your physical health. Dominated by low mood.
Excitable psychopaths (some call them epileptoidnye psychopaths) is excessive irritability, reaching in some cases attacks frantic fury. For nothing, they might cause offense, beatings, and even commit murder. Such conditions arise from them particularly easy in times mood changes, usually manifested anguish and anger. This is a rough, vindictive, obstinate, tend to be only with his opinion, arbitrary and fanciful. Among them are frequent abusers of alcohol or drugs, gamblers.
Thymopathy - the main feature of this group of patients are constant changes of mood. Hyperthymic people respond are constantly elevated mood, optimism, often careless attitude to what is unlawful and excessive energy, initiative, high working efficiency, which, however, may be different variations, and therefore started by their often not completed. These people are active, sociable, often unceremoniously in circulation. They love to argue, easy come in irritation, but quickly calm down. Gipotonica - persons with permanently reduced background mood, seeing in the surrounding only negative, sad or gloomy pessimists. They are never pleased, and first of all by themselves, easily fall into despair. Uncommunicative, taciturn, do not like to attract attention to himself and to speak about myself. Outwardly often look slow, gloomy and anxious.
Jet-labile psychopaths are different, very changeable moods, the change of which depends usually on the outside but are often the most insignificant reasons. So during the day they have many times a good mood can change depressed.
Psihologicheskie psychopaths (psychasthenia) are anxiety, self-doubt, a tendency to constant doubt and self-check. Every forthcoming action causes them thinking, sometimes painful. Often they have a variety of Intrusive state. The future is always drawn to psychasthenia full of difficulties and failures, and therefore it is more important than what is happening at the moment. In dealing with people they shy and timid. Before the group psihologicheskih psychopaths meant by the concept of "psychasthenia".
Hysterical psychopaths , always aspire to look around more important personalities than they really are. They themselves believe that they have a varied non-existent merits and are constantly striving to attract attention to himself. They are characterized by posturing, prone to fantasies and lies, moodiness and changeable moods. Their affection and feelings usually lack of depth, and the judgments and actions are entirely dependent on circumstances, and therefore can be diametrically opposed. Stubbornness and intractability combine with increased suggestibility.
Schizoid psychopaths are isolation, secrecy, lack of need for communication with people. However, they often can discover a rich inner life, manifested in the fantasy, self-analysis, analysis of what is happening around them, even though they may seem indifferent to what surrounds them. They are characterized by high sensitivity and vulnerability when it comes to themselves, but they often show emotional coldness to the most common human experiences.
Paranoid psychopaths are confidence, high self-esteem, persistence, persistency. They are alien doubts and hesitations. These people are extremely narrow minded, very one-sided in judgements and estimates that are prone to commit, attention on a small number of ideas, which then begin to dominate in their minds, forcing the rest. Such ideas can be an invention, the fight against imaginary violations, jealousy, love claims, etc. For their implementation paranoid psychopaths are unusual perseverance, and the failure only increase it. They often develops soutenue behavior.
Under the influence of external factors - psychogenic or somatic nature, and sometimes for no apparent external causes the psychopaths arise with different clinical manifestations acute and protracted reactive States (see Psychogenic), neurotic reactions (see Neurosis), depression. These transient mental disorders are referred to the so-called dynamics of psychopathy.
Of great importance in the prevention of psychopathy have the proper education and appropriate to the characteristics of pathological personality professional orientation. In the treatment of psychopathy the importance belongs psychotherapy (see), treatment with psychotropic drugs (see). Psychopaths in periods of deterioration require monitoring and treatment by a psychiatrist and a neuropathologist. In some cases shown treatment in a psychiatric hospital.


Psychopathy (from the Greek. psyche - the soul, the spiritual qualities and pathos - suffering, illness; synonym: abnormal characters, constitutional psychopathy, abnormal variants of personality) is the characteristic features of the personality (the development of which takes place from the moment of its formation), expressed in disharmony mainly emotional-volitional properties with relative preservation of intelligence; these features are pathological in nature, since preventing such entities painless for themselves and others to adapt to the external environment.
Criteria of the notion of "psychopathy". Inherent psychopaths pathological properties determine the whole structure of personality and are more or less constant. The existence in the psyche of this or that subject any individual elementary deficiencies and deviations does not give grounds to ascribe it to the psychopaths (P. B. Gannushkin). Practical criterion of psychopathy is the following: psychopathic personality is such abnormal personality, from abnormality affecting they or society. From oligophrenia psychopathy are no innate mental deficiency (among psychopaths meet and gifted people). Mental disorders with having a progressive movement (schizophrenia, epilepsy, organic diseases) psychopathy is distinguished by the absence of progression with the development of dementia, irreversible personality defect.
In the past to psychopathy attributed to the so-called degenerative psychosis. Currently, this term should not be used as obsolete. Formally, a degenerative illness brings with psychopathy inherent in both genetically constitutional factor etiology. Currently, these psychosis is attributed mainly to the family (hereditary burdened) schizophrenia flowing sluggishly, with psychopathic changes that occasionally interrupted by acute attacks ("delusional flash of degenerativ", described by old authors).
It should also be distinguished psychopathy from psychopathic States after craniocerebral trauma, infectious diseases, intoxications CNS, from endocrinopathy (see Endocrine mental syndromes). An example of a psychopathic changes are violations of character at teenagers undergoing epidemic encephalitis. Essential for the differential diagnosis is to establish the fact that, before the psychopathic changes in personality development proceeded normally, changes occurred after the disease. From neuroses, psychopathy share disharmonies warehouse person.
For psychopathy is characterized by the underdevelopment of one or exaggerated development of other properties that are in a healthy person, but in a more harmonious combination (with E. A. Popov). In other words the psychopathy peculiar partial delay of personality development (partial dysenteria). It is manifested mainly in the field of emotions, will, desires in the form of partial infantilism (juvenilism), asynchronous, uneven, delay the development and leads to the formation of congenital pathological features of the nervous system with persistent violations in the ratio of the basic properties of higher nervous activity and interaction signal systems, bark and cortex.
Etiology. Psychopathy of politologichni. Causes partial dysontogenetic may be genetic factors, prenatal exposure to hazards on the embryo and fetus, birth injuries, pathology of the early postnatal period. Underdevelopment, childishness psyche is manifested in the heightened suggestibility, and the inclination to exaggerate and over-developed imagination hysterical subjects, emotional instability at emotivno labile, in the weakness of will by unsustainable psychopaths, immature thinking with features of childishness subject of power affects, in paranoically psychopaths. Great importance in the development of psychopathy adverse environmental conditions; improper training, negative influence of psychogenic injury can lead to aggravation of psychopathic traits. By Acting Century Kerbikov, in some cases leading in the development of psychopathy is a constitutional factor (nuclear psychopathy"), in the other factor psychogenic environmental impact ("pathological personality development").
Classification and symptoms. Generally accepted classification of psychopathy not. In light of the doctrine of I. P. Pavlov about the types of higher nervous activity are the following main types of psychopathy (however, in addition to "pure" kinds of psychopathy, there are transitional forms).
Gipotonicescie (constitutionally depressive) psychopaths - face with the steadily low mood, born pessimists, with a sense of inferiority, dissatisfied, not capable of long-willed voltage, easily flowing into despair, Malopolskie to the initiative, is very sensitive to the trouble seeing in the gloomy light, slow, outwardly morose, gloomy and taciturn.
Gipertoniceski (constitutionally excited) psychopaths - face with the constantly elevated mood, self-esteem, sociable, active, mobile. They are distinguished by superficiality and volatility of interest, otvlekaemost. Their exaggerated plans they rarely lead up to the end. Their sociability becomes excessive talkativeness and the consequent need for entertainment. They do not distinguish the boundary between permissible and forbidden. Many of them tend to falsity and boasting, the other predominant expressed conceit known and irritability, which leads to frequent disputes ("obnoxious debaters")and if the objection is to the outbursts of anger.
Emotivno unstable (reactive labile) psychopaths are highly variable mood, which varies according to the most minor matter. Sharp comment, the memory of the sad event, the thought of coming trouble cause depression. Such persons often give the impression of "capricious of nedotrogi"; they are characterised by emotional richness of shades, mobility feelings, hard react to trauma pathological reactive States.
Asthenic (constitutionally nervous) psychopaths are characterized a combination of mental excitability, irritability, sensitivity with high exhaustion and fatigue. The predominance of istoshchaemosti are General weakness, inability to long-term effort and diligent work, indecision, confusion, predisposition to hypochondria; the mood is usually the oppressed. With the prevalence of anxiety - irritability, pronounced sense of failure in combination with excessive self-centeredness, increased self-esteem, which may lead to clashes with others. Common to the astenikiv is a rapid decline in productivity, resulting they work irregularly, impulses, often successfully start but quickly pass that gives reason to accuse them of laziness. Many of them are timid, shy, very sensitive ("mymotorola.net").
Psihologicheskie psychopaths - see Psychasthenia.
Excitable (explosives) psychopaths are different extreme irritability, reaching to the attacks of rage, and the reaction force is not corresponds to the strength and quality of the stimulus. A slight occasion such persons may be offensive, scandal, in anger become aggressive, can cause the beatings and injuries, do not stop even before the murder; so excitable psychopaths are often found in the forensic psychiatric practice. They are characterized by episodes of mood disorders (dysphoria) in the form of a malicious anguish, sometimes with admixture of fear. They tend to abuse alcohol and drugs. These are people unilateral, scenicheskih (excite) affects, intolerant to others, persistent, stubborn, overbearing, demanding, requiring obedience and submission. In some cases, malice and aggressiveness depart from them into the background and acts of excessive force drives (people of drives). Among them there are gamblers and said, drunkards, dipsomania (alcoholic man), persons who is sexual perversion or suffer periodic bouts of uncontrollable desire for vagrancy (P. B. Gannushkin).
Hysterical (needs recognition) psychopaths are characterized by a desire to appear in his own opinion, and in the eyes of others important personalities that do not correspond to the real possibilities and advantages of these entities. Hysterical psychopaths characteristic of theatricality, posturing, often lying, the tendency to deliberate exaggeration, excessive power of imagination, demonstrative behavior. They combine the increased suggestibility with stubbornness (hysterical negativism). Emotions hysterical psychopaths unstable and superficial; strong affection they are replaced by the desire for recognition, actions, calculated on the viewer, for external effects. They do not disdain to use any means to attract attention to themselves, trying to appear original, to impress others with unusual manifestations of some disease (stage seizures, fainting), cast injured and insulted, talk about their imaginary tribulations and triumphs, do not stop before the false accusations (for example, accused of treating their doctor in the attempted rape) and smoothbore (stealing crimes not committed). Often, instead of a sober appraisal of reality are fiction, the real situation is replaced with fictional. Psyche hysterical psychopaths characterized childishness, immaturity. Those who thirst for recognition combined with the overly rich fantasy and lying, called pseudologue (pathological liars). Most often inventions relate to their own personality. This falsity is far from always unselfish: many extracted from our lies tactile favor by scams, fraud, quackery, get under various pretexts money from gullible people.
Paranoid psychopaths (paranoid) are characterized by the tendency to the formation of supervaluable ideas, which have the strongest emotional colouring in comparison with all the other ideas and views, as a result of these thoughts and views prevail in mental life and activity of the subject. The main supervaluable idea paranoid psychopath is thought about the special significance of his own personality. For them, the typical extreme egoism, excessive self-conceit, narrowness of vision, persistence in standing up for their beliefs, subordination of thinking affects (correctly only what you want and like the paranoid: "strong desire is the father of thought"). Paranoid psychopaths tend to see implemented their desires and fight against those who oppose this, developing more energy, naiva a large number of enemies, part real, mostly imaginary. Sometimes this psychopath detects the pursuit of invention, the reformation, and all who disagree with him, become his enemies, because increased mistrust and suspicion are paranoid psychopaths. The non-recognition others of the merits of the psychopath is leading to clashes with others, and he does not give neither belief nor threats, nor requests. From the failures he only draws strength for the further struggle. His reaction may be in the form of litigation (verwandte): he's up to a court case, shall appeal the judgments of the court of appeals in the media and in the Supreme court. In addition to the chain of command affects, paranoid thinking of the psychopath is characterized by rezonansom, expressed in the tendency to various abstract constructs, and proved is assumed that still need to prove.
Unstable (limp) psychopaths - weak-willed people who easily fall under the influence of the environment, especially bad, easy to follow
bad examples, vneseny, pliant, without deep affection, not able to serial purposeful activities, lazy and sloppy. Under the influence of a bad environment easily become alcoholics, substance abuse problem. Education and organized labor create the conditions for control over weak-willed behavior of the psychopath and allow it to become quite a useful member of society.
Schizoid (pathologically closed) psychopaths are isolation, secrecy, violation of contact with reality, and that due to their isolation taken very subjective and inaccurate. They have no emotional resonance for others ' experiences, the understanding of which for them is difficult; it is difficult to find an adequate form of contact with others. Characterized by a combination of high sensitivity and vulnerability to emotional coldness, the paradox of emotional reactions and behaviour. In life usually called Kooks, the originals, strange, bizarre.
On the individual forms of psychopathy can be judged by the following statistics (taking into account the subjects who have committed socially dangerous acts): among the psychopaths that have passed the judicial-psychiatric examination at the Institute of forensic psychiatry them. Professor Serbian, prevailed excitable - 20.4% and hysterical - 17,2%.
Classification of psychopathy is traditional, but not the only one. In one of the latter were of psychopathy [petrinovich (N. Petrilowitsch), 1966], the following groups of psychopaths: gipertoniya and expansive, depressive, asthenic, with unstable mood and explosives, insecure, eager recognition, weak-willed, fanatical and paranoid, anankastic (suffering from obsessions)that are insensitive.
Dynamics of psychopathy is expressed in the mood swings, pathological psychogenic reactions (in response to the trauma), pathological personality development (protracted reactive States), leading to decompensation of psychopathy. In excitable psychopaths have rapid mood discharges, hysterical - hysterical psychogenic illness. Paranoid (delusional syndrome) can be observed in asthenic psychopaths, paranoid, hysterical, schizoids. Depression is particularly easy appear in depressed and emotive labile psychopaths. Asthenic hypochondriac development - adynamic, emotivno labile, hysterical. Supervaluable invention, the reformation, Korolevstvo - paranoid. When assessing psychopathy we must remember that with age phenomena partial delay of development can be smoothed. So, hysteria development observed in puberty age often leveled at follow-up, and the person becomes quite balanced. With the development of personality disappear baby pseudologia and partial violation of drives. Volitional instability and psychopathic emotional coldness may be transient condition adolescence.
Outstanding pathological personality development of the personality, which is found close relationship with the environmental conditions (education, family problems and so on). Under the influence of factors of external environment changes the type of higher nervous activity, formed its typical features, which gradually become the same as in congenital constitutional psychopathy, which is the basis for the formation of a certain structure psychopathic personality. For example, the formation of asthenic psychopathy could contribute to the atmosphere of constant humiliation, punishment (O. Century Kerbikov).
Practical doctor should know clinics and dynamics of psychopathy in such a degree as to be able to diagnose and refer the patient for treatment and dynamic monitoring of the psycho-neurological dispensaries.
Treatment and prevention of psychopathy include psychotherapy ( see), educational activities, labor therapy, physiotherapy, medical treatment. Of great importance are the correct employment regime and proper professional orientation, promoting the necessary training nervous processes of the psychopath. Drug treatment is of secondary importance, and should be strictly individual, single scheme cannot give. When dysphoria, States affective tension and anxiety shown Librium (Elenium), meprobamate. Affective excitable prescribed chlorpromazine, reserpine, with the depressed mood swings - Tofranil (melipramine) with meprobamate.
Judicial-psychiatric examination. In most cases, psychopaths are recognized sane. Only in some cases (for example, heavy asthenic psychopathy and paranoid) the degree of psychopathy is so deep that a psychopath is recognized as insane.