Psychopharmacology

Psychopharmacology is the section of pharmacology, the study of influence of medicines on higher nervous activity. Psychopharmacology is studying the application of medicines for the treatment of mental illness. The allocation of psychopharmacology in a special section of pharmacology is connected with specificity and considerable complexity of methodological techniques used psychopharmacology.
Questions of pharmacology of the higher nervous activity occupied a significant place in the works of I. P. Pavlovshowed that using caffeine and bromides you can adjust the excitatory and inhibitory processes in the Central nervous system.
However, psychopharmacology in the modern sense originated only in 1952-1954, when in medical practice were introduced chlorpromazine and reserpine, providing pronounced calming effect in psychiatric excited patients. They were the first drugs from the group of psychotropic drugs (see). In the future, thanks to advances in synthetic chemistry have managed to get a significant number of new active psychotropic drugs, among which currently produce substances inhibiting and stimulating action. Substances inhibiting type of action presented by the groups neuroleptic funds (see), or large tranquilizers, and anti-fobia sedatives (minor tranquilizers). Stimulants, antidepressants and psychotomimetics funds (see) are a group of psychotropic drugs stimulating action.
In connection with the introduction into medical practice of psychotropic drugs appeared the possibility of effective treatment of a number of mental illnesses.
Cm. also Sedatives, Stimulants nervous activity.

Psychopharmacology (from the Greek. psyche - the soul, pharmakon - medicine and logos - doctrine - the partition of pharmacology, devoted to the action of drugs on the top of the nervous and mental functions. Psychopharmacology also includes the use of drugs for treatment of mental illness.
The founder of psychopharmacology should be considered I. P. Pavlov, who developed the theoretical bases of pharmacology of the higher nervous activity (see), showing that with the help of bromides, caffeine and other tools to intervene in main functions of the Central nervous system, regulating the relationship between irritable and braking processes. Psychopharmacology in the modern sense originated in 1952-1953, when was installed favorable calming effect on mentally excited patients synthetic drug chlorpromazine [in the USSR issued under the name chlorpromazine (see)] and alkaloid reserpine (see), isolated from the plant Rauwolfia serpentina growing in India. These substances are able to normalize such disorders, as hallucinations, delusions, agitation. However, the activity of chlorpromazine and resorcinol was not high enough, they had no beneficial effects in the treatment of mental diseases involving depression, moreover - they themselves caused depression, which can be considered as a side effect of chlorpromazine and reserpine. All this gave rise to the creation of new psychotropic drugs (see).
The success of modern synthetic chemistry have allowed for a relatively short period of time (10-13 years) to create hundreds of new psychopharmacological agents. Originally, the search was carried out among derivatives fenotiazina (the latter belongs chlorpromazine). Further research psychotropic substances was carried out among the different classes of chemical compounds. This has resulted in the connection, ten times superior activity chlorpromazine and, most importantly, with a different course of action, the so-called antidepressants.
To psychopharmacological means include also known stimulants higher nervous activity - caffeine (see) and its analogues and synthetic drugs fenilalkilamina series - amphetamine (see) and its derivatives and some others. Special group of psychotomimetics funds, or hallucinogens.
The experience of clinical use of psychopharmacological agents showed their high efficiency in the treatment of mental illness. Their use has changed the terms and conditions of detention of patients in psychiatric hospitals. Appeared wide opportunities of outpatient treatment of patients with psychosis. The appearance of psychopharmacological agents were opened prospects for the study of the pathogenesis of various psychopathological States, including through the creation of experimental models psychotic States.
Classification of psychopharmacological agents is based mainly on their pharmacological action. There are mainly two groups of funds: neprimirimogo (sedative) and stimulating types of action. The former include tranquilizing (psycho sedative) funds. This group includes large tranquilizers, or neurologiske funds (see), minor tranquilizers, or atractions funds (see Psychotropic drugs). Minor tranquilizers because of the similarity in the nature of United in one common group with sedatives (see). To the substances stimulating type include psihoanalitiki (see Stimulants nervous activity), antidepressants and psychotomimetics funds (see).