Light

Light (pulmones) - respiratory, which is enriched oxygen and selection of her carbon dioxide. The flow of air into the lungs and the removal of its output are provided respiratory movements of the chest wall, diaphragm and the contractile ability of the lung. Besides the basic functions of gas exchange, light perform secretory-excretory function and participate in metabolism.
Anatomy and histology

light man
Fig. 1. Lungs: 1 - the trachea;
2 and 4 left lung (2 - top share, 4 - lower share); 3 - rib surface; 5 - heart tenderloin; 6 - diaphragmatic surface; 7, 9 and 11 - the right lung (7 - the lower the percentage, 9 - 11 - the top share); 8 - bias furrow; 10 - horizontal groove.

Light (Fig. 1) are located in the thoracic cavity on both sides of the heart and major blood vessels, and covered the serous membrane - pleura (see). Between pleural bags, which are concluded in the lungs, is the mediastinum (see). The lungs have a conical shape with the basis, pointed down to the diaphragm, and the round top, serving on the front 2-3 cm above the collarbone, and behind rising to the level of VII cervical vertebra. The lower boundary of light back upon paravertebral line comes to XI, on an average axillary - up VIII, and the front srednesrochnoi - to VI ribs. The right lung has a greater volume than the left, it is shorter and wider, because the right diaphragm cupola stands above the left. In the lungs, there are three surface: rib, diaphragmatic (basis) and internal (medial). They demarcated sharp lower and front edges. At the leading edge of the left lung is formed heart tenderloin, bounded from below by the tongue. Behind the junction of the rib surface in the medial rounded and lies in the lung furrow chest. On the medial surface are the gates of light through which the lungs are bronchus, lung artery, and nerves are two pulmonary veins and lymphatic vessels. They form the root of the lung. At the root of the right lung artery lies below bronchus, and in the left - above it. Pulmonary veins are located below the arteries and bronchus. The right lung furrows is divided into three parts: upper, middle and bottom, left - to-two: top and bottom. Accordingly division easy to share the main bronchus is divided into lobe bronchi, the latter - by segment that is included in the segments of light. Bronchopulmonary segment called lung area, more or less completely separated from the neighbouring land connective tissue walls with flowing into them veins. This is an area of branching bronchus 3-th order in the branches of the pulmonary artery. Each light has 10 segments (no-PNA).
the segments of light

Fig. 6. The lung segments (a and B is right, and G - left): 1 - apical segment; 2 - rear segment; 3-front segment; 4 - lateral segment (right lung and upper reed segment (left lung); 5 - medial segment (right lung) and the lower reed segment (left lung); 6 - apical segment (lower lobe); 7 - basal medial segment; 8 - basal front segment (7 and 8 in the left lung in most cases have a common bronchus); 9 - basal lateral segment; 10 - basal rear segment.


Segments (Fig. 6) consist of lung lobes. In each slice is lobular bronchus with a diameter of about 1 mm, formed as a result of the repeated branching segmental bronchi. Cloves are located in 2-3 rows at the periphery of the lung and separated by Magdalinovka connective tissue. It provides mobility segments during breathing movements. Lobular bronchus is divided into limit (terminal) bronchioles. The bronchial tree consists of large and small bronchi and terminal bronchioles. According to him, the air moves when you inhale and exhale but gas exchange between blood and air in them is not happening. Terminal bronchioles give rise to respiratory (respiratory) the bronchioles. In the walls appear protrusion - alveoli. Respiratory bronchioles branch out to end the alveolar moves and alveoli. All these entities form the alveolar tree, or respiratory parenchyma of the lung. Functional anatomy unit it is acinus (bunch), formed by the branches of one of the respiratory bronchioles. The diameter of the alveoli adult average of 0.2-0.25 mm, they are closely adjacent to one another. The inner surface is lined with a single layer of flat alveolar epithelium, lying on the basal membrane. Outside adjacent to her blood capillaries, held in millionarmy partitions, which is a lot elastic, retikuliarnah and collagen fibers. Blood capillary borders several alveoli, which creates optimal conditions for gas exchange.
In light presents, vessels of big and small circles of blood circulation. To the vessels of the small circle are branches of the pulmonary arteries that carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs, and the tributaries of the pulmonary veins, carrying arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium. Bronchi and lung parenchyma nourish bronchial artery is a branch of the thoracic aorta, venous blood flowing on bronchial veins in unpaired and pollonarrua Vienna. In light found in large quantities arterio-venous anastomoses. Lymphatic capillaries and vessels form in the lungs superficial and deep network and plexus. Lymph outflow occurs in the lung, broncho-pulmonary and upper and lower tracheo-bronchial the lymph nodes in the course of the bronchi, the root of the lung and the bifurcation of the trachea. They are innervated by the light wandering nerves and branches of sympathetic trunks that form in the lungs plexus in the course of the vessels and bronchi.



Physiology - see the Breath.

  • Research methods and symptoms
  • Disease and lung damage
  • Lung damage
  • Purulent processes in the lungs (abscess and gangrene)
  • Adenomatosis and hypertension
  • Pneumonia - see Pneumonia.
  • The infarction
  • Perniosis light
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Parasites light
  • Pneumoconiosis - see Pneumoconiosis.
    Pnevmatikos - see Pnevmatikos.
    Pneumosclerosis - see Pneumosclerosis.
  • Progressive pulmonary dystrophy, syphilis lungs and pulmonary vascular sclerosis
  • Tuberculosis - see Tuberculosis.
  • Eosinophilic infiltration light
  • Pulmonary embolism - see Embolism.
    Emphysema - see Emphysema.
    Echinococcus lung - see above - Parasites of the lungs. Cm. also Echinococcosis.
  • Tumors of the lung
  • Operations on the lungs
  • Light (pulmones) - twin breathing organs located in the chest cavity in serous bags pleura (Fig. 1-3).

    Embryology
    Anatomy and histology
          Features of the structure of the lungs in children
    Physiology
    Research methods lungs
    Lung diseases
          Pathologic anatomy
          Symptoms and treatment
          X-ray diagnostics of diseases and damages
    Tumors of the lung
          Pathologic anatomy
          Classification, symptoms and treatment

  • X-ray diagnostics of lung tumors
    Lung surgery
          Abscess and gangrene light
          Lung damage
          Operations on the lungs
    Radiation damage to the lungs