Puncture) is a hollow needle for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Used by the doctor to detect in the cavity of a liquid or gas, take the material for bacteriological, histological or cytological examination (puncture ulcer, sternal puncture), removal of the oral fluid or pus, for the introduction of medicinal products (see the Venipuncture, suboccipital lymphadenopathy puncture), and contrast agents with radiological examination of the joints, the ventricles of the brain (see Ventriculomegalia), of the spinal canal (see Spinal tap), vessels (see Angiography), cardiography (contrast studies of the heart), and so on Extraction of the contents of the cavity is carried out syringe or with the help of apparatuses creates a vacuum (see Potena apparatus). Nurse applies puncture Vienna blood collection, blood letting, introduction of medicinal substances, and also solutions of (physiological, ringer, glucose). Puncture is performed with strict compliance with the minor. Depending on the destination puncture using a thin or thick needle (with or without mandrel), various trocars. The puncture is done under local anesthesia, sometimes without anesthesia or General anesthesia. Infringement of rules of execution of a puncture can lead to complications (otla needles, suppuration, puncture intestine, bladder, rupture of an artery, ecchymosis, lung damage, mediastinum , and others).

Puncture (from lat. punctio, puncture, puncture) - puncture tissues of the hollow needle (or trocar)produced with diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Diagnostic puncture produce: for liquid and cellular elements from various cavities and organs (pleural and peritoneal cavities of the spinal canal), sternum and other bones, liver, spleen, and so on; for pressure measurement in the cavities of the heart and major blood vessels, spinal canal; for introduction into the cavity of the heart, blood vessels, bone substance bones different contrast agents. Using puncture enter the air or oxygen in particular cavity with therapeutic or diagnostic purposes (artificial pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum).
In the medical purposes puncture produce: to remove abnormal accumulations of gas, liquid or pus from various cavities and organs; for emptying of the bladder with urinary retention; to extract and blood (venipuncture); for intraosseous blood transfusion (puncture of bone); to introduce into the blood vessels cavity and tissues of various medicinal substances.
Puncture produce steel hollow needles with different length and clarity, with or without mandrel depending on the purpose of manipulation and depth punktiem region. If you need to produce great collection of liquid (for example, when ascites) P. produced with the assistance of trocar.
P. carried out with observance of all rules of reimbursement, often under local anesthesia, in some cases under General anesthesia. Biopsy of the cavity in which contraindicated air hit, you must use a specially prepared needles with wearing tight rubber tube. The tube using a cannula connected with a syringe and pinch clamp at the moment when the syringe is removed. Methodology P. different in each case and depends on the purpose of application and characteristics punktiem region. Cm. also the Venipuncture, a Lumbar puncture.