Transmission of infectious diseases

Almost all of the children infectious diseases germs and viruses - pathogens - are the patient's mucous membranes of the nose, throat, throat and upper respiratory tract (with measles, pertussis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, influenza, influenza-like diseases and other). When talking, coughing, sneezing, along with tiny droplets of saliva and sputum pathogens dissipate into the air and, entering the body of a healthy child, infect it. It is established that small droplets of saliva can throw around in the air at a distance of 3 metres, and sometimes much further. The smaller the droplets of sputum and the smaller the causative agent (for example, the measles virus and influenza), the long distances they are scattered in the air. Consider also that the value drops depends on the viscosity of saliva and sputum. For example, if the pertussis saliva and sputum very viscous, so droplets are formed larger and they disperse from the patient to a distance of 2-3 meters
And when Gori and flu nasal discharge and sputum more liquid and formed the smallest droplets are transferred with the current of air to tens of meters.
Therefore, a patient with whooping cough enough to isolate in a separate room, to watch the rest of the children in the apartment did not meet him, and they will not get sick. When measles and influenza is not enough: with current air smallest droplets of infected saliva scattered throughout the apartment, and all that are in it are not bolevshim measles children should be considered infected. This way of transmission is called airborne. When measles, whooping cough, flu, influenza-like diseases, rubella, chicken pox and mumps this method of infection is the main one. Therefore, contamination of a healthy child is only at his meeting with the patient.
Microbes and viruses - pathogens of these diseases is very unstable and die very quickly in the environment. Only in rare cases, if, for example, a toy during coughing got sputum patient with whooping cough, and it was immediately taken into the mouth healthy child (though in another room), he can become infected. In dry the droplets of the organism dies. Therefore, practically these diseases infections through things are not happening.
However, scarlet fever, diphtheria, dysentery and smallpox, when pathogens can long survive, the source of the infection can be not only the patient, but things fell allocation patient - linen, toys, dishes, as well as those who cared for a sick or had contact with him. Especially important in the spread of infection is the observance of personal hygiene care for patients older (if they do not wash their hands and removed the robe, leaving the patient).
The spread of the disease involved and healthy carriers of the infection. For example, often children and adults, especially had contact with sick diphtheria, from the mucous membrane of the nose or throat allocate diphtheria microbe, although they remain healthy. They are bazillonositelstve and can be sources for the spread of diphtheria.
In conclusion, we consider it necessary to repeat that/the main source of infection always the patient, especially when infection with unstable/pathogens. Infections with resistant pathogens, except for the patient, the source of spread of disease can be ballonhotel, and things that were in use in the patient.