Radiation laboratory

Radiation laboratory (synonym: radiological laboratory, radioisotope laboratory, radiology Department) - a specially equipped room for works with the use of ionizing radiation sources. Intended for scientific research, radioisotope and radiation therapy. In research institutions radiation is often called the laboratory where research in the field of radiobiology.
Design and operation of the radiation laboratory at the institutions of the system of the Ministry of health of the USSR shall be regulated by rules of work with radioactive substances. Rules depending on the physical properties of used sources (half-life, views and energy radiation), form of application of isotope (open or closed source), its radiotoxicity, levels of activity at work, type of work with radiation sources define a set of protective measures, excluding exceeding the established maximum permissible doses of radiation (SDA) and maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of radioactive substances in the air of working premises, in water open water bodies and water sources, as well as in the air of sanitary protection zones and settlements.
Radiation laboratory for working with open sources of ionizing radiation, in accordance with the conditions of work are divided into 3 classes. In a basis of classification is based on the group in the radiotoxicity of the isotope, you are working with and the level of radioactivity in the workplace.
On the radiotoxicity of radioactive isotopes is conventionally divided into 4 groups. To the group And related isotopes particularly high radiotoxicity (for example, Ra226, Sr90, Ro210 and others), and group B - isotopes high radiotoxicity (among them frequently used in medicine Sa45, J131), for the group - isotopes average radiotoxicity (for example, S36, Au198 and others); the group G - isotopes least the radiotoxicity (for example, tritium, 14 , and others). In medical establishments, radiological laboratories belong to the second class. For such radiation laboratories limited levels of radioactivity in mkuru) at workplaces established: for isotopes group a - 0,01 - 10, B-group - 0,1 - 100, the group's In - 1 - 1000, group G - 10-10 000. The size of annual consumption of open radioactive sources (Curie) radiation laboratory divided into three categories: I - more than 100, II - from 10 to 100, III - 10. Radiological laboratories of medical institutions often belong to category III.
The least stringent requirements for laboratories that use in experimental research of radioactive substances in the indicator amounts. If total value of radioactivity in mccoury) does not exceed for substances of groups A - 0,1, group B - 1,0, group b - 10 and group G - 100, special premises for such radiation laboratories is not provided, and holding them to the requirements as for conventional chemical laboratories.
Radiation laboratory that use radioactive substances in order radioisotope diagnostics consist of a storage-packing area of 18-20 m2, the washing of not less than 10 mg, treatment no less than 10 m2, of the sanitary inspection (for staff). In accordance with the nature of the work in them stipulates the requirements to furnish of premises, installation of ventilation, canalization, lighting, heating, and also to equipment of the radiation laboratory of protective and special equipment (boxes, dosimeters, radiometers). Radiation laboratory, where open radioactive sources are used for radiation treatment should submit insulated compartment or built under the special project is a separate building.
In medical institutions, which used a sealed radioactive sources, lighting, heating, plumbing and ventilation must meet the General standards and requirements established for medical institutions. It is necessary to provide measures of protection and continuous radiation monitoring of radiation doses in the workplace, in the adjacent room, the patient's bedside (see Dosimetry of ionizing radiation, Antiradiation protection). Special rules regulate conditions of placement of equipment for gamma and x-ray therapy.
In the system of sanitary-epidemiological service has radiological group, responsible for the control over observance of rules of work with radioactive substances.
Radiation laboratory performs multiple functions, available in the scientific institutions of different profiles, in industry, in scientific expeditions of different types. Depending on the kind performed the works they can be relatively simple or very complex and expensive structures (for example, the so-called hot labs that work with radioactive substances with high activity).