Radiation hygiene

Radiation hygiene - section hygiene dealing with the study of the influence of ionizing radiation on humans and development of sanitary-hygienic measures and regulations for radiation safety of persons dealing with sources of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances.
Cm. also Doses of ionizing radiation, Radiation sickness, Antiradiation protection, Radioactive waste.

Radiation hygiene studies of biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on human health and develops measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing daily irradiated in the process of professional activity. The task of the radiation hygiene is also providing measures of radiation safety of the population in connection with radioactive contamination of the environment. Practical activities in the field of radiation protection and radiation safety is based on hygienic norms, scientific justification which is also one of the major problems of radiation hygiene.
Radioactive pollution of the external environment improves natural radioactive background and causes the necessity to study the behavior of radioactive substances in air, water and soil with a focus on the transition of long-lived radioisotopes from the external environment in food products. The paramount consideration is the determination of dependence between the level of radioactive contamination of the environment and of radioactive substances in the human body. Of particular importance is therefore acquire hygienic study of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation received at the expense of internal irradiation of the body.
In connection with the problem of radioactive contamination of the external environment is one of the major problems of radiation hygiene it is necessary to consider the implementation of the measures of effective control over the collection and storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste (see). Preventing or restricting the transfer of radioactive substances in the human organism with food requires a careful study of the processes of migration of radioactive material.
The increase in the number of nuclear reactors and nuclear power development, increased production and increased use of radioactive isotopes put forward the problem of radiation accidents. Liquidation of consequences of any accident involving radioactive pollution of the external environment that requires mandatory participation of hygienists. Assessment of radiation situation after the accident (the determination of the level of radioactive contamination of soil, water and all kinds of agricultural products) should be the basis for activities related to radiation protection of the population. Depending on the results of the radiological examination shall take measures to ban or limit the consumption of water and food. In necessary cases, according to the instructions and under the guidance of hygienists produce decontamination (see) water and food supplies. With obligatory participation of hygienists, addressed the issue and to evacuate people from the emergency area. To solve this complicated and responsible task hygienist should have information radiological assessment of the situation and be well-oriented in the installed for emergency maximum permissible level (RC) radiation and maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive substances in water and food products.
In radiation hygiene apply adopted in sanitary practice of research methods: dosimetry, radiochemical (see Dosimetry), statistical and other Study the effects of radioactive substances on the human body is made using radiobiological, sanitary-Toxicological, radiochemical and other research methods.
Sanitary control of the use of radioactive isotopes and ionizing radiation sources (see ionizing Radiation) in all sectors of the economy perform radiological group of sanitary-epidemiological stations (see).
The works on radiation hygiene printed in magazines: "Medical radiology", "Hygiene and sanitation", "occupational Hygiene and occupational diseases", "food Hygiene".
Cm. also Radiobiology.