Radioactive drugs

There are radioactive products for biomedical research, diagnostic, treatment and radiation sources for the gamma apparatus.
In biomedical research can be applied hundreds of inorganic and organic compounds, 14C-labeled, 3H, R, 35S, 131J, and other radioactive isotopes. The most important are labeled amino acids, their analogues and derivatives, alkaloids, vitamins, antibiotics, carbohydrates and their derivatives, components of nucleic acids, steroids and steroid hormones.
For marking diagnostic R. p., as a rule, use of radioactive isotopes (see) with short half-lives. In the case of labelling long-lived isotopes used compounds, quickly flushed out of the body (vitamin B12 - So, neovitin-Hg2O3 and others). Some diagnostic short-lived R. p. with the isotopes of yttrium-90, technetium-99m, iodine-132, gallium-68, India-115m is obtained by simple manipulations directly in medical institutions of special generators as a child of the decay products of appropriate long-lived radioactive isotopes. Diagnostic R. p. mark gamma, beta and positron emitters. Radioactive drugs, emitting alpha particles, for this purpose are not suitable. R. p. applied in the form of a true and colloidal solutions, suspensions, proteins, fats, gases and other table. 1 contains concise information about the use of some diagnostic R. p.
Treatment of radioactive preparations are intended for radiation therapy mainly malignant tumors, and some skin diseases. These include dispersed R. p. (colloidal solutions, suspensions, emulsy), discrete radiation sources (applicators, point and line sources-drugs-absorbable in the body), and organotrophic tumorectomy substances (chemical elements with tropnostyu to certain organs and tissues, antibodies, complexing agents and others). In medical R. p. use of beta - and gamma-active isotopes (60Co, 137Cs, R, 90Sr, 90Y, 198Au and others). These drugs, in some cases, allow for the irradiation of the tumor in sufficient tissue dose with minimal radiation exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. Depending on the localization of pathologic focus radioactive drugs used in the form of applications to the skin and mucous membranes or injected into the tissue, oral, intravenous, or lymphatic vessels. In table. 2 contains data on basic medical R. p.
Charging gamma therapy unit used sources made from cobalt-60 and cesium-137. They have the most advantageous properties for gamma therapy: a relatively large half-life, monochromaticity and high energy gamma rays and more profitable compared to conventional x-ray radiation in-depth distribution of absorbed energy in irradiated tissues.
These same isotopes used in installations for radiation sterilization (see radiation Sterilization). The installation is used for radiation sterilization of medical materials (gauze, cotton wool and surgical instruments, glassware, suture material, plastic goods nutrient medium for microbes and other), pharmaceutical products (vaccines, serum, antibiotics and others) and bacterial waste production.

Radioactive drugs - articles containing radioactive isotopes, which are used in medical practice for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes (see Radiation therapy, Radioisotope diagnostics). Radioactive drugs can be in different physical state (solid, powder, liquid, gaseous, in the form of radioactive colloids or microsuspension). They may have different General and specific activity, contain various radioactive isotopes. Solid radioactive preparations are used solely with the medical purpose for the introduction of a tissue or body cavities, for applying to the skin. They are manufactured in the form of needles, cylinders and beads, threads, cut thin wire, small grains or granules, plastic squares.
Rudonosnye needles and cylinders are a shell of stainless steel, inside which contains radioactive cobalt-60 (see Cobalt). The shell performs the role of mechanical protection, preventing the release of radioactive substances to the surface and thus prevents radioactive contamination areas, patients and medical staff. The shell also serves as a filter, absorbing unnecessary in the treatment of cobalt-60 beta radiation. Work with needles or cylinders comply with the help of tweezers, branches are covered with rubber protecting membrane preparations from mechanical damage. Once in 3 months. to control pollution of the surface of steel shells radioactive substances must be removed with a cotton tampon strokes from the surface of drugs and to measure radioactivity with radiometer (see ionizing radiation Dosimeters). In case of detection of radioactive contamination to use needles or cylinders are forbidden, and they should be buried. Needle and cylinders are subjected to sterilization by boiling before each entering the patient. Needle and cylinders must be properly marked with a special numbered tags and be on a strict accounting of the nurse - Keeper radioactive drugs.
Radioactive drugs in the form of beads and pieces of wire also contain radioactive cobalt, however, unlike needles and cylinders, they don't have a steel protective shell. The total activity of these drugs and their arrangement in a patient are individuated in each case.
The most commonly used standard medical forms, called spin-applicators. They are made of plastic, contain specific sets of radioactive compounds and are of different sizes. They are excluded many operating procedures of preparation of radioactive drugs and, consequently, reduces the radiation hazard for nurses. One of the types of applicators is a rubber tube, which are located inside the cylinders or beads. Probe is inserted into the nasal cavity or the esophagus. Patients entered radioactive sources of cobalt-60 contain in special chambers, of which they are strictly forbidden to go out. After the procedure, radioactive drugs extracted from the damaged area, the nurse carefully checks the number of them, washes and then passes to the store.
Given that over time, the activity of cobalt-60 is reduced in accordance with a physical half-life, every 3 months. recalculation of activity of radioactive compounds. Issuance of needles and cylinders for the introduction of patient is effected on receipt exactly the same as they are in the storage after use. Radioactive drugs in the form of granules and pellets administered to the patient forever, and therefore, to make them use of short-lived radioactive isotopes - gold-198 or iridium-192 (see the Gold, Iridium). Grain and pellets do not have a protective metal shell, so contact with them is possible contamination by radioactive substances and used tools are subject to obligatory decontamination. Because grain and pellets enter only inside the fabric, it usually does not cause pollution equipment and linen. However, you have every day to make the control chamber of the radiometer.

Pages: 1 2