Wounds are the result of infringement of an integrity of integuments, which is frequently accompanied by damage of the subject of the soft tissues, nerves, blood vessels, and when penetrating into the cavity wounds - even internal organs. Wounds to some extent can display the properties of the damaging of the object, from which they emerged. Depending on the type of weapons and items, as well as the mechanism of the injury there are wounds from solid blunt objects - hurt (including ragged and bitten); sharp objects - cut and stab, stab chopped; fire-origin - gunshot, drobovii, shrapnel.
Forensic medical study of the localization of the RAS features of their edges, wound channel, foreign implementations and pollution in the wound and surrounding tissue can be of great diagnostic value, allows to judge character, as damaging the subject and conditions of occurrence of the injury.
Microscopic examination of the RAS pellet origin is carried out, as a rule, to determine their origin and posthumous lifetime. For all RAS characteristic divergence their edges and violation of the integrity of tissues in the course of wound channel, and for living caused of bleeding in the cavity of the channel. Bleeding in the subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscle tissue surrounding the wound channel, expressed the more than less acute and more traumatic was damaging the subject. The limitation of injury in the event of deaths determine, on the basis of the analysis of the processes of inflammation and healing. The inflammatory response is preceded by the increased activity of amino peptidases (within 1 hour)revealed histochemical reaction. In parallel formed stasis, blood clots and secondary foci of necrosis. After about 4 hours appear perivascular accumulation segmented leukocytes. After 6 hours, you can register in the zone of inflammation of the presence of macrophages and individual fat cells. After 12-15 hours appear mitoses in tissues, and by the end of the day - the first signs of regeneration of epithelium on the edges of the wound. On the 3rd day is celebrated the tumor budding capillaries and the emergence of granulation tissue. After a week, the basic structure of the healing wound are collagen fibers.
The healing process (how and abrasions) depends on the degree of vascularization and innervation tissues, which varies in different parts of the body. So, head wounds heal within 7 days, and back - 8, belly - 10, on the limbs through 11 -12 day. Infected wounds heal much longer.
In the healing of wounds formed scars. In the relatively young scars you have a large number of capillaries, found glybki hemosiderin. In 1-1.5 months scars take its permanent form. By this time they acquire the elastic fibers, and capillaries almost completely disappear.
For microscopic picture scar is characterized by thinning of the epidermis, the absence of normal papillae skin sebaceous and sweat glands, and brutalization - hyalinosis (3-6 months).