Distribution and types of dwellings for the elderly

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In the USSR, East Germany, England, France, Sweden, USA and other countries recommended the construction of houses for the elderly split type: for the healthy and the sick, the needy in bed. In case of separate accommodation can more fully meet the needs of patients in medical care, hygiene maintenance, hygienic mode, etc., that allows you to create normal living conditions of medical care for walking, and sick care and treatment. Unlike hospitals in these homes for the chronically ill can satisfy the requests and needs of older people who require not only treatment, but more care and regular medical assistance (mainly middle and Junior medical staff). In addition, the organization of such houses will relieve the hospital and will give an opportunity to put in them the patients who need intensive medical care.
In recent years, in several countries (Germany, France, England, Sweden, Netherlands and others), more houses, sanatoria is organized by specially developed projects. The construction of such houses are built on the free territory, usually in the countryside. Special attention is paid to creating an environment that is close to home. For example, in Holland in one of the houses for patients with chronic diseases in the living areas, in addition to increased compared with the number of hospital rest rooms and rooms for the peaceful practice in each partition between the two chambers are convenient for patients and leisure spots. The chamber is equipped with wall wardrobes, shelves for books and other items.
Along with the construction of the specialized house, differentiated depending on the state of health, in many countries the construction of traditional houses combined type, providing for the settlement of healthy and sick (P. G. Rudakov, 1972; O. I.. Smirnova, 1976; Reader, 1972; Collot, 1972). Such houses are often built in the form of a complex of buildings with separate sections for the sick and the healthy. Separate buildings connected by means of covered glazed transitions. There are also examples of placement offices in the same building with floor insulation. Convenience houses combined type is that the elderly can live to a ripe old age, even "if they need special medical care. In terms of medical care and the creation of casual comfort and psychologically this type of settlement is inferior to separate way.
In addition to the above factors justifying separate or combined settling older, you should be aware that the choice of receiving resettlement significantly affect the demographic situation, economy of construction and operation of buildings. These issues in turn are closely linked to capacity houses. Nursing homes can be divided into three groups: small (25 to 50 seats), medium (100-200 seats) and large (500 seats or more).
In Western European countries widely spread are the resorts on 70-150 places. In U.S. nursing homes calculated at 25 ÷ 1000 seats and more. Comfortable houses are built mostly small - to 25-150 people. In England preferred homes on 25-80 people. Construction Academy GDR recommends to erect such a building in 120-240 places. Standard projects of houses in the GDR designed to 120-160 places. Approximately the same capacity adopted in Bulgaria and Romania. In the USSR nursing homes built on 50, 100, 200, but more often than 300 people. There are separate houses for 500-600 and 900-1000 places. Average occupancy of houses in the country is approximately 200 places, and it gradually increases. Both small and large homes for the elderly have their advantages and disadvantages. In a small house it is easier to create an environment that is approaching the normal tenement houses, to which older people are used. In a big house easier to organize cultural and medical care; these houses are more economical in construction and operation.