Distribution and types of dwellings for the elderly

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The health status of older, age features of mobility and varied requirements, determine the methods of their settlement in their respective residences. In recent years, the housing needs of elderly goes far beyond providing them with special houses-boarding schools. In the conditions of scientific-technical progress, urbanization, expansion of housing construction progress in the development of medical and social care there is a problem of prolongation of life of the elderly person in the home, placing among the urgent tasks of housing construction, tailored to the elderly and old people.
The study of lifestyles, environment and health showed that older people need access to the living environment, which should help to extend the active period of their life and independent position. In this respect, some countries (USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Switzerland, the USA, Sweden and others) special institutions are developed housing programs and rates of construction of different types of homes for the elderly. Simultaneously debate as to how to place homes for the elderly; dispersal, providing apartments in conventional homes, or concentrating them in special homes, apartment or hotel-type.
The majority of economically developed countries entered a phase of the ageing of the population before the USSR. The share of the elderly in their population is much higher, so the solution to the problem of housing for this category of people is on a qualitatively different level. In some countries (East Germany, West Germany, Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia) in practice of construction has already introduced new progressive forms of settlement and types of dwellings for the elderly.
In our country during the transition to family welcome residents were developed project proposals for the construction of apartment houses for the elderly. However, the need to solve the housing problem through accelerated mass construction in General not allowed to implement these proposals.
Now, when the main indicator in the solution of housing problems is to improve the quality of housing, better address family structure, gender, age and other factors. Real basis purchased and the construction of dwellings are apartments for the elderly. In this respect, of great interest is the experience of creating homes of this type and distribution of the elderly on the examples of some foreign countries.
In many countries with a pronounced process of urbanization (England, Austria, France, Switzerland and so on) already practiced the construction of houses for elderly and old people, capable to live independently or under condition of provision of appropriate social, and when necessary medical care; However, the generalization of the experience is of great interest from the point of view of determining the most appropriate forms of settlement of such people.
In the practice of design and construction there are basically two types of settlement of old people is concentrated and dispersed. Concentrated reception settlement that received more widespread, is that for the elderly in the built-up area among other buildings and residences provides construction of special homes or group homes. These include the house of residential type, sectional, blocked or gallery patterns with buildings for public service. Usually they are built in the area, isolated from the city noise but near the lines of transport and public services. The range of service areas in these houses usually consists of Amateur Laundry service and a rest room, which is used also for watching TV. Sometimes provide space for private study, a room for medical workers and others.