Race

The races of man - historically in human evolution biological departments of a " reasonable man" (Homo sapiens). They differ complexes transmissible hereditary and gradually changing the morphological, biochemical and other peculiarities. Occupied by the races of modern geographical coverage area, or areas, allow to plan the territory on which the race was formed. Due to the public nature of the human race is qualitatively different from the subspecies of wild and domestic animals.
If for wild animals, the term "geographical races" and can be applied, in relation to the person he largely lost its meaning, because the relationship of the human races with the original habitats affected numerous migrations of the masses of people in the result of which was a mixture of different races and Nations and developed new human associations.
Most anthropologists divides mankind into three major races: black-Australoid ("black"), Caucasian (white) and Mongoloid ("yellow"). Using geographical terms, the first race called the equator, or African-Australian, the second European-Asian, third - Asian - American race. There are the following branches of the large races: African and Oceanian; North and South; the Asian and American (G. F. Debar). The Earth's population now stands at over 3 billion 300 million people (data for 1965). From them on a share of the first race accounts for about 10%, the second 50% - and third - 40% . This, of course, gross total count because there are hundreds of millions rasolomahandry individuals, many small and mixed race (intermediate) racial group, including ancient origin (for example, Ethiopians). Large, or primary, race, which occupies a vast territory, not quite homogeneous. They are divided into physical (bodily) signs on the branches, 10 to 20 small races, and those on anthropological types.
Modern races, their origin and systematics studies of ethnic anthropology (Lesovedenie). Research expose populations to explore and quantify the so-called racial basis with the subsequent processing of massive data methods of variation statistics (see). Anthropologists use dial color of the skin and iris, color and shape of the hair, the form century, nose and lips, and anthropometric instruments: compasses, goniometer, and others (see Anthropometry). We also hematological, biochemical and other examinations.
Belonging to a particular racial division determined on the men 20-60 years on complex genetically stable and rather typical signs of physical structure.
Further descriptive characteristics of racial complex: the presence of a beard and moustache, coarse hair of the head, the degree of development of the upper eyelid and it folds - epicanthus, tilt forehead, head shape, development brow, face shape, hair growth on the body, the type of addition (see Habitus) and proportions of the body (see the Constitution).

race of the skull shape
Variants of the skull shape: 1 - dolichocranic ellipsoidal; 2 and 3 - brachycerinae (2 - rounded, or spheroid, 3 - wedge, or steroidnyi); 4 - mesarray pentagonal, or pentagonicini.

person's race types of picture

Unified anthropometric survey on living human being, and on the skeleton, mostly on the skull (see figure), you can Refine somatotropina surveillance and implement more correct than the racial composition of the tribes, peoples, individual populations (see) and isolates. Racial characteristics vary and are subject to gender, age, geographical and evolutionary variability.


Racial composition of mankind is very complicated, that to a great extent depends on the mixed (metilirovanie) of the population of many countries in connection with the ancient migrations and modern mass displacements. So inhabited by mankind land area found contact and intermediate racial group, formed from the interpenetration of two or three or more complexes racial peculiarities when cross-breeding anthropological types.
The process of mixing of the races has greatly increased in the era of capitalist expansion after the discovery of America. As a result, for example, Mexicans are half mixes between Indians and Europeans.
Noticeable intensification of racial mixing is observed in the USSR and other socialist countries. This is the result of liquidation of all kinds of racial barriers on the basis of appropriate evidence-based national and international policies.
Race biologically equivalent and have a vested related. The basis for this conclusion is developed Including Darwin's doctrine of monogenism, i.e., on the origin of man from one type of ancient bipedal apes, not from a few (the concept of polygenism). Monogenism confirmed by anatomical similarity of all races, which could, as underlined Including Darwin, be caused by convergence, or the convergence characteristics, different ancestral species. Species of monkeys, which became the ancestor for humans lived, probably, in South Asia, where ancient people had settled on the Land. Ancient people, the so-called Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis), gave rise to the "reasonable man". But modern race arose not from Neanderthal and formed anew under the influence of a combination of natural (including biological) and social factors.
Education races (reagent) is closely associated with anthropology; both processes are the result of historical development. Modern man appeared on the vast territory, approximately from the Mediterranean to the Indian subcontinent, or a bit more. Here in the northeast direction could be formed Mongolians, in the North-West - Europeans, in South - Negroid and astrology. However, the problem of the origin of modern man is still far from full resolution.
In the earlier era when the resettlement of people in the Land of their group inevitably fall into the geographical conditions, and consequently, social exclusion, which contributed to their racial differentiation in the process of interaction of factors of variability (see), heredity (see) and selection. With the increase in the number of the isolate was new colonization and there were contacts with neighboring groups, obuslovlivaet medicatio. In the formation of races, known role was played by natural selection, which influence on the development of the social environment significantly weakened. In this regard, and the features of the modern races are of secondary importance. Some role in the formation of races also played aesthetic, or sexual selection; sometimes racial characteristics could purchase is identification of features for representatives of one or another local racial group.
With the growth of human population has changed as the specific value and direction of individual factors of recoginize, but the role of social impacts increased. If for primary races matizatsiya was a differentiating factor (when crossbreeding group again got to conditions of isolation), now mixing eliminates racial differences. Currently, about half of humanity is the result of cross-breeding. Racial differences, naturally arisen for many thousands of years, must be and will be, as pointed out by K. Marx, eliminated historical development. But racial characteristics will long be manifested in different combinations, mainly in individuals. Matizatsiya often leads to the appearance of new positive features of the physical stock and intellectual development.
Race patient needs to take into account when assessing some data of medical inspection. This applies mainly to the peculiarities of the coloring of the skin. Skin color, typical representative of the "black" or "yellow" race, "white" would be a symptom of edisonova disease or interesetu; purple color of the lips, slate nails the Caucasian doctor will evaluate as cyanosis, a Negro as a racial characteristic. On the other hand, discoloration when the "bronze disease, jaundice, cardio-respiratory failure, distinct from the Europeans, can hardly be defined representatives Mongoloid or Negroid-Australoid race. Much less practical importance and rarely can be necessary amendments on racial differences in the evaluation of the Constitution, growth of the skull shape, and so on, as for allegedly found predilection of this race to one or another disease, increased susceptibility to infection and so on, these features, as a rule, do not have a "racial" character, but are related to social, cultural and other conditions, proximity of natural foci of infection, the degree of acclimatization resettlement, etc.