Gap

The gap is closed damage of soft tissues with a violation of their anatomical continuity. Rupture of ligaments, muscles, tendons occur mainly from their stretching (excessive movement in the joint, trying to catch the falling of a heavy object, and others). Rupture of blood vessels, nerves, internal organs are most likely to arise from squeeze (the impact of the fall, hitting the wheel of a car and so on). These breaks are sometimes associated with bone and joint injuries (rupture of the urethra at fracture of the pelvis, rupture of the vessel or nerve at fracture of long bones or dislocation)when the soft tissue damage the bone fragments or head bones, came out of the glenoid.
Rupture of ligaments, muscles, tendons presents with pain, immediate drastic violation movements, swelling, bleeding or hematoma. At break, the muscles in it is formed gap, noticeable to the touch. A growing (especially pulsating) hematoma points to break artery, the emergence of sensitive and movement disorders - gap nerve. In all these cases show the direction to the surgeon after imposition of transport bus, and when hematoma and a pressure bandage.
Signs of rupture of the body of the abdominal cavity are terrible symptoms of peritonitis, internal bleeding. But sometimes (especially when the rupture of the spleen) symptoms of blood loss not appear soon. Therefore, in all cases closed abdominal trauma victim necessarily bring in the surgical hospital, following the same rules as in acute abdomen (see).
Sign break the urethra - the inability to urinate. Shown immediate hospitalization in urology and surgical hospital, without attempts catheterization.

Gap (ruptura, eruptio) - mechanical damage to the soft tissues and organs, caused by their hyperextension or deformation (impact or compression) and accompanied by the violation of the integrity of the victim anatomical education. Gaps refer to private damages, although can be combined with simultaneous injury of skin away from the location of breaks (for example, R. liver - with bruised non-penetrating wound of the abdomen). In violation same intact skin covering torn cloth, not talking about the gap, and ripped the wound (only a torn wound female perineum, which emerged in the childbirth, called of perineum).
The gap is always accompanied by a more or less significant hemorrhage. Very large subcutaneous hematoma formed at break subcutaneous tissue with extensive traumatic detachment of the skin, such as the lower back, buttock, and thigh. These hematoma usually flat, relatively weak filled with blood and lymph; they are emptying through puncture. Then impose a pressure bandage, which contributes to the engraftment debonded skin.
The gap muscles, tendons, ligaments, primarily disorders of functions of the oporno-impellent device. Bleeding usually small, only ligaments of the knee joint is accompanied by a significant hemarthrosis. A conservative treatment, as when injuries (see) and the distortions, i.e. reduced to immobilization, the application first cold, then the thermal treatments, massages, remedial gymnastics. Hemarthrosis should be emptied by puncture. When fully R. large muscles, tendons have to resort to surgery the stitches that benefits be made by the subsidence of the reactive inflammation, but not postponing for a long time, since the onset of persistent retraction of muscles obstruct the convergence and the binding of the ends. When R. ligamentous apparatus of the joints are also sometimes shows recovery operation (see the Distortion, the Knee joint).
The most dangerous gaps and parenchymatous hollow internal organs, most often occur in the abdominal cavity (see the Abdomen). They manifest pattern of acute blood loss (see) or perforated peritonitis (see). Initial signs of these terrible conditions are the basis of the diagnosis. Symptoms of intra-abdominal bleeding quickly manifest themselves at rupture of the liver, at rupture of the spleen can be found later (on 2-3-I day after the injury). Treatment consists emergency laparotomy and suturing the torn body or in its removal (spleen). Rupture of the bladder, urethra, ureters are accompanied dysuric disorders and urinary zachecamy (see), breaks kidney - retroperitoneal hemorrhage into the tissue.
Treatment - see the relevant authorities, such as break of the chest cavity - see the Thoracic duct, Lungs, Esophagus. Besides purely traumatic R., possible "spontaneous" breaks pathologically changed organs, especially the large blood vessels (see Aneurysm, aortic Aneurysm, uterine rupture - threatening complication of childbirth (see).