A brief sketch of the development of hygiene in Russia and the USSR

In the ancient monuments of Russian written language there are indications that in the construction of cities and villages should avoid low and marshy areas as especially dangerous for health. For water supply during the siege were organized structures, called caches,river water was delivered to the well through the closed channel.
For the development of sanitary culture in Russia was of great importance Petrovskaya epoch. In the published by Peter I the decrees referred to the need to keep order and improvement of Saint Petersburg, cleanliness of streets, markets, production wastes, the improvement of the city. In these decrees were instructed to "sell foodstuffs wore a white tunic and would observe in all purity".
In XVIII century a number of issues of public hygiene, including school, reviewed M. Century Lomonosov in his work "discourse on the propagation and preservation of the Russian people". The ideas of M. of Century the University has influenced a number of Russian medical scientists, who paid great attention to the prevention of diseases (D. S. Samoilovich, S. G. Zabelin, M. I. Mudrov and others).
Hygiene and disease prevention occupied a large place in the works of S. P. Botkin, N. I. Pirogov. So, in the "General Principles of military-field surgery" N. I. Pirogov wrote: "I believe in hygiene. That's where lies the true progress of our science. The future belongs to medicine safety".
Hygiene as an independent scientific discipline has started to develop from the middle of XIX century. The key factors were the development of capitalism - the growth of cities, industrial enterprises, anti-serfdom revolutionary movement, large epidemics, caused the necessity of carrying out of sanitary-hygienic measures, which in turn required a scientific hygienic grounds. The great success achieved in the middle of the XIX century in the field of natural Sciences (physics, chemistry, physiology, Microbiology), also contributed to the development of hygiene.
The first Department of hygiene was organized at the Military medical Academy in St. Petersburg in 1871, it was headed by A. P. Dobronravin. He owns 90 works on various hygienic issues. Among these are the fundamental guidelines: "the Course of public health", "Hygiene", "Course of military hygiene." A. P. Dobronravin took part in solution of many issues related to military hygiene.
In 1882 in Moscow University was organized by the Department of hygiene, led by the Faberge company Arismana, which played an important role in the development of hygienic science in Russia. In the works of Faberge company of Erisman and his school are reflected all sections of hygiene. He has published three volumes of capital "health Guidance" (the first in Russian).
The largest representative of the domestic hygiene of the late XIX century and the first quarter of the XX century was the Century, Khlopin (1863-1929). On the formation of him as a scientist influenced by I. M. Sechenov. G. Century Khlopin was a supporter of the experimental areas in hygiene. He has written a valuable guide Methods of sanitary-hygienic researches", the textbook "Basics of hygiene", "Course of General hygiene", etc. To the end of XIX and beginning of XX century there were research scientists hygienists and health doctors in all sections of hygiene. However, in the living conditions of tsarist Russia these achievements, in most cases it was not possible to implement.
After the great October socialist revolution started new era in the development of hygienic science. The program of the party, adopted at the VIII Congress in 1919, has identified a preventive direction of our medical science. Hygiene as science has received for its development opportunities. Has expanded the network of specialized research institutes, laboratories, increased hygiene departments in medical institutions.
The solution of important practical problems encountered in front of the sanitary service in connection with rapid development of industry and agriculture, contributed to the development of hygienic science in the USSR. This led to the fact that certain branches of hygiene was formed as an independent discipline: occupational hygiene, communal hygiene, food hygiene, hygiene of children and adolescents, hygiene, medical institutions, military, and radiation hygiene. Hygienic requirements have been widely introduced. Among the most prominent figures in the field of hygiene in the Soviet period should be called N. A. Semashko, 3. P. Solov'ev, A. C. Malikova, V. A. Uglova, A. N. Performed By A. N. Marzeev and other
Nikolai A. Semashko (1874-1949) was the first people's Commissar of health, colleague Century I. Lenin, largest theorist and organizer of Soviet health, the founder of social hygiene as an independent scientific discipline, the author of more than 250 works on theoretical and organizational aspects of health, school hygiene. In his book "essays on the theory of organization of health care" (1947) N. A. Semashko summarized the main principles of the Soviet health care.
Zinovy Petrovich Solov'ev (1876-1928)- one of the first organizers of the Soviet health, an outstanding theorist. He did much for the development of questions preventive direction of Soviet medicine, clinic of the method of maintenance of the population, organization of military-medical service of the Soviet army and the other On his initiative organized the pioneer sanatorium camp Artek in the Crimea.
The topical issues of hygiene, brought to life by the rapid growth of industry, agriculture and the development of a number of new industries (electronics, remote control, nuclear industry and other), connected with the names F. G. Krotkova, A. A. Letavet, V. A. Ryazanov, S. N. Of cherkinsky, 3. I. Israelson, A. A. Pokrovsky, etc.