Immune reaction to cow's milk proteins in healthy persons

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Antibodies to cow milk proteins have been identified in the blood of healthy people using a variety of immunological methods. Already in 1923, many children receiving milk from the cow, were found precipitating antibodies [1]. Gunther et al. [2] using the method of passive haemagglutination revealed antibodies to cow milk proteins half of the surveyed people healthy and less than half of the cases in the study of blood samples from the umbilical cord. The titer of antibodies, as a rule, was low as in serum of blood from the umbilical cord and in the serum of healthy persons, however, 98% of children aged from 7 months to 2 years was found in the blood of antibodies to cow milk proteins, the most high titers observed in children aged 3 to 6 months. Rothberg and Farr [3] was measured antibodies to bovine serum albumin and alpha-lactalbumin in healthy individuals, using the method of deposition of ammonium sulfate precipitating antibodies and their complexioned labeled antigen. These antibodies are the most frequently detected in children (41-74%), less frequently in young people (13-30%) and the least in persons older than 40 years (5-10%). In healthy newborns, as a rule, in the blood or no antibodies to cow milk proteins, or their title is low. As infant feeding cow's milk antibody titer is gradually increasing and sometimes reaches the level specified in the first few days of life. Similar data was obtained Kletter et al. [4] using the reaction of haemagglutination and method of radioimmunotherapy. In cases where the newborn was found circulating antibodies to cow milk proteins, it was IgG antibodies, the title of which was close to that in the mother's blood. Feeding pasteurized cow milk was accompanied by an increase in the content of hemagglutinin in the 1st month of life; antibody levels reached a maximum for 3 months and then slowly decreased (Fig. 1). At the same time determined by the method of radioimmunotherapy IgA antibodies developed more slowly, reaching a maximum of 7 months of a child's life. The amount of IgM antibodies was the lowest and little has changed within 12 months of the study. These data confirmed the previously available observations Lippard et al. [5], who used a reaction of binding complement.
In children, which for some time breastfed and then translated to cow's milk, hemagglutinins IgG and IgA antibodies formed slower and in a smaller number than in children who received cow's milk since birth. However, the total level of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies in the serum was similar in both groups [2, 6, 7].
Using enzyme-ELISA method (FIM) Hanson et al. [8] has revealed the presence of circulating antibodies to cow milk proteins IgG, IgA, and IgM classes in healthy children who received mixed feeding - breast milk alternated with formula milk. Interestingly, the titer of IgG antibodies was higher in children who were weaned, compared to those who received mixed feeding a longer period.