Speech

It is inherent in the human form of activity that serves as the communication between people through the use of the language. Speech of each person occurs and is formed on the basis of language, specific for various nationalities. Language enriches speech the experience of generations and provides for the use in the speech of the individual this experience as product of socio-historical development of the nation and mankind.
When communicating people are manifested mainly motorized and touch it. Motor, expressive, oral (sound) form of speech is characterised by saying a voice of words, sentences; writing them a letter playback (handwriting, typewriting). Touch, impressive form of speech - perception and understanding speech. Impressive oral speech is expressed in auditory perception of spoken and impressive speech written in visual perception of the text (read). Reading and writing are combined in the concept of written speech.
In addition, people have inner speech - speech for themselves. This form of speech is of great importance for the development of consciousness and thinking, for the regulation of the actions of the person. At the stage of sufficient development of motor, sensory, inner speech acquired the ability to learn writing, to master reading and writing. An important aspect of speech and grammatical reflecting the laws of grammar of a language. Violations her in pathology called agrammatism in language and speech. In the speech is implemented is another side of the language semantic, or semantic associated with the lexical meaning of the individual words and their combinations. With the development of mankind in the process of improving their knowledge and accumulated experience changes in language and first of all in its lexical-semantic structure that directly reflected in the speech as a whole language group, and of each of its members. In addition to single words, phrases, and sentences, the semantic value in the speech have also stress, intonation, gestures, facial expressions.
In the pathology of speech development and diseases, leading to its changes, can suffer along with other parties speech and its semantic side. The voice pronunciation of speech sounds (phonemes, syllables, words, and phrases) participate lungs, trachea, larynx with voice ligaments, throat, tongue, teeth, lips and cheeks. Great value for voices have larynx, oral cavity, paranasal sinuses. Therefore the pitch of the voice, some features of intonation, rate, fluency and rhythm of speech are determined by individual property rights and give speeches each person's identity.
In speeches participate respiratory, Fondazione (voice system) and articulation muscles, coherence which is under constant control of motor and sensory speech departments of a bark of the big hemispheres of a brain.
The different sounds of speech arise from the fact that the bodies of the oral cavity is given special for this sound a provision defining the form and amount of these bodies. So, when casting a vowel "a" mouth wide open, and narrow throat; at the sound and the ratio is opposite to that observed in the sound "a". When lip sounds ("p", "b") to the closure of the lips, for other sounds is the correct structure of the teeth; in the pronunciation of certain sounds is needed to different parts of the language deep, responsible way to heaven. Articulation with different sounds and their complexes characterized by varying degrees of difficulty.
The Central part of the vocal apparatus includes the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, cerebellum, route linking the bark with peripheral organs of speech. It is established that precedence for speech is the right-handers the left hemisphere of the brain, the left - right. The development of perception and understanding of the semantic content of verbal signals is a function of all of the cerebral cortex and mostly speech touch zone temporal region of the cerebral cortex. Anatomical and physiological side of speech is in close connection with the analyzers (see) first signal system; auditory analyzer is very important for the perception of speech of others, for the emergence of speech in normally developing child, for regulation in the future own human speech (auditory control). Visual analyzer is also involved in the emergence and development of speech, compensates for disorders of the auditory analyzer. I. P. Pavlov emphasized the role kinesthetic (movement) of the analyzer. This analyzer provides backward alarm from the peripheral organs in the cerebral cortex, thus participating in the control of execution of speech jobs from the center.
In norm the main form of communication was a loud audible speech. In congenital hearing loss or loss to the development of child speech occurs deafness (see) with compensation of the defect gestures. Gestures and mimicry are included in the sound it healthy person as its reinforcement because they may increase the emotional expressiveness of speech, can sometimes replace the word, to emphasize its importance, to take the point.

  • The child's speech
  • Speech disorders