Speech disorders

Speech disorders are congenital and acquired. Various reasons can cause one or another impediment of speech in pre-speech stage of child development. Speech disorders may be the result of pathological changes in the peripheral organs of speech, or lesions of the Central nervous system of a different nature. Speech disturbance may be the main disorders or secondary. For the emergence of sound (motor) speech, you must have a sufficiently high level of hearing. Deafness (see) and even hearing loss (see) different degrees may have a negative impact on speech and language development in children. Speech disorders not associated with deafness or hearing loss (logopathy), can be when Allie (see), the tabloid lesions (see Anarthria, Dysarthria), tongues (see), some forms of stuttering (see). Nasalized speech, in which there is a bow to the pronunciation of the sounds change articulation of most of them, due to the splitting of hard and soft palate. Aphasia (see) due to organic lesions of certain parts of the brain that have value for speech functions. Pathology of speech can be expressed in violation of its tempo and rhythm. Slow speech - bradylalia, pediatria - occurs as a result of extrapyramidal disorders. Takillya - accelerated tempo of speech is the case with emotional excitement, neuroticism, in subcortical lesions. Violation of smoothness of speech typical for stuttering, trochaic and ticks. In children, often with deep total exhaustion noted mutism - lack of motor speech at the security of the internal (writing, reading). After the military injuries (contusion) sometimes there comes a kind of transient disorder (deafness) - anomalism. Speech disorders in mental retardation diverse and depend on the level of intelligence, the patient's age, personality traits, physical development.
The study of speech must be combined with a full clinical examination. Special attention should be paid neuropsychic sphere, the state of the peripheral device speech and hearing. The study of speech should be multilateral, as is often the violation simultaneously covers a different part of speech. So, for example, defects of the motor speech can be expressed symptoms of sensory and semantic nature; stuttering is often combined with the tongue and other violations of speech; the tongue may be associated with the violation of the letter, spelling. Of great importance in the study of patients with impaired speech has a special psychological research.
Treatment. In accordance with the common manifestations of the disease and especially disorders of speech, use different methods of treatment, including pharmacological, surgical (cleft palate and lip), speech therapy (see speech therapy, physiotherapeutic. Treatment should be complex on the testimony in each case.