Reflexes

The reflex reaction of an organism to influence of external and internal environment, carried out through the Central nervous system. Using reflexes are continuously correct and exact match functions of the organism to surrounding conditions.
Reflexes are classified into different groups depending on a number of grounds. There are reflexes exteroceptive, i.e., caused by irritation of receptors of the body surface; interoceptive arising from the irritation of the internal organs, blood vessels; proprioceptive - upon stimulation of muscles, tendons, ligaments.
Depending on departments spinal cord and brain are necessary for the implementation of reflexes, last divided into spinal, tabloid, mesencephalon, diencephalic, cortical. The nature of the reaction reflexes are divided into motor, secretory, vasomotor. All reflex acts are divided into conditional and unconditional reflexes.
Unconditional (simple and complex) reflexes is congenital, hereditary transmitted reactions of the organism. They are permanent characteristic of a given kind of animals. Simple unconditional reflexes are tendons, skin, and other following reflexes. For the unconditional complex reflexes are: food, defensive, sexual reflexes, parent reflexes associated with feeding and nursing, tentative reflex (reflex of novelty), locomotive (reflex to keep your body in a certain position).
Conditional reflexes reaction of nervous system, which are produced by the body in the process of individual development, on the basis of experience. Conditional reflexes individual, casual, produced on the basis of unconditional reflexes.
The structural basis of reflex activity is the reflex arc. It consists of: 1) receptors, perceiving irritation; 2) afferent ways (shoots perceptive receptors)that carry the excitement from the periphery to the Central nervous system; 3) insertion of neurons; 4) efferent nerve fibers (the processes of neurons that transmit excitement to the periphery); 5) the Executive body (vessels, muscles, secretory glands).
When patients need to make the study of reflexes, because loss of normal reflexes or the emergence of pathological evidence of the defeat of an entity of the nervous system, adjourn reflex arc on some level. Most often use the scheme of division of reflections on the surface and deep. To surface reflexes are reflexes with mucous membranes and skin reflexes, to deep - tendon, periosteal, articulate.
Superficial and deep reflexes are invoked from the first months of life. Reduced reflexes called hyporeflexia, no - areflexia, improving hyperreflexia, uneven reflexes - entrelacees.

  • Reflexes somatic nervous system
  • Reflexes of the vegetative nervous system