Pathological reflexes

Pathological reflexes arise from the defeat of the pyramid way which conducts impulses from the cortex of the brain to the spinal cord. Pyramid path runs from the front of the Central gyrus of a bark of a brain through the subcortical areas of the brain, brain stem and ends in the cells of the anterior horns of the spinal cord.
Pathological reflexes are observed not only in case of injury of the pyramid way, but in normal children 1-1,5 years (see above). There are pathological reflexes: a) the wrist; b) stop (flexion and extension); C) oral automatism.
Carpal reflexes are characterized by the fact that with different methods of invoking a reflex bending the fingers of hands - they "bow".
Carpal symptom Rossolimo - investigating the causes of the fingertips short jerky blow to the tips of the II-V of fingers of hands of the patient (brush in position palm down). In response occurs rhythmic flexion of the fingers.
Symptom Zhukovsky - investigating the causes hammer blow at the hands of the toe. In response occurs rhythmic flexion of the fingers.
Ankle reflexes are divided into extensor and flexor. Extensor ankle reflexes are characterized by the fact that with different methods of invoking a reflex extension (extension) of the thumb.
Symptom Babinsky is called by holding the handle of neurological hammer, blunt-tipped needles on the outer edge of the sole (Fig. 9). In response occurs extension of the big toe or fan-shaped divergence toes. Children under 1.5 years symptom Babinsky is the physiological and is called normal.
Symptom Oppenheim is caused by carrying out the rear surface of the average phalanx II and III of the fingers on the front surface of tibia investigated. In response, a reflex extension of the big toe (Fig. 10).
Symptom Gordon is caused by contraction of the calf muscles legs investigated (Fig. 11). In response, a reflex extension of the big toe.
Symptom Scheffer is caused by compression of the Achilles tendon (Fig. 12). In response, a reflex extension of the big toe.
Flexion ankle reflexes are characterized by the fact that the fingers at the different ways irritation their "nod", "bow".
Symptom Rossolimo - exploring your fingertips causes a short putt on the tips of II-V of the toes with the heel of the foot investigated. In response, a reflex flexion of the fingers.
Symptom Zhukovsky - called hammer blow in the middle of the soles of the toe. In response, a reflex flexion of the fingers.
Symptom Bekhterev I - called hammer blow on the back foot in region IV - V metatarsal bones. In response, a reflex flexion of the fingers.
Symptoms of oral automatism arise in bilateral lesions kortiko-nuclear paths (paths, going from crust to core cranial nerves).
Palmar-chin reflex caused by irritation of the palm. In response occurs reduction of muscles of a chin.
Lip trunk boars reflex called percussion bar or irritation of the lips. In response occurs bulging lips.
Grasping reflex arise with the defeat of the frontal lobe along with symptoms of oral automatism, mental disorders, speech. There are several prehensile reflex.
Symptom automated grasping stroke occurs when the irritation of the palm. In response occurs flexing fingers (sick enough of the subject).
A symptom of obsessive grasping - patient grabs all the surrounding objects.
Along with pathological reflexes in paralyzed or paretic extremities is observed the increase of the tendon and subperiosteal reflexes, muscle tone, there protective reflexes.
Protective reflexes - involuntarily arise shortening or lengthening paralyzed limbs (bending or straightening her)that occurs in response to pain, temperature, cold stimulation. For example, in response to a needlestick paretic limb bent at the knee, hip joint. With a sharp pain bent toes occurs bending feet in the hip, knee and ankle joints.
Protective reflexes are manifested in different ways. If paretic limb was bent, after an injection of a sharp cooling ether - unbent, if extended - bends. Similar phenomena occur on the hands.