Regulation of menstrual function

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Thus, it should be concluded that regulation gonadotropic function is ensured by the interaction of several cascaded hypothalamic lesions that may have either stimulating or depressing effect as through nerve and humoral factors. It should be considered that the activation of the higher centre in respect of luteinizing hormone occurs, apparently, mostly nervous way.
Hypothalamic influence on the hypophysis is humoral through neurosecretion; produced mainly intermediality areas of the hypothalamus and stored in the mesial eminencia funnel of the pituitary gland.
It is necessary to briefly dwell on the issue of the possible impact neirolepticakih hormones on products adenogipofiza. It is especially important to note that when dealing with some clinical aspects (see Chapter 7) effect of irritation of the cervix in women there is a clear effect in the form of increased contractility of the uterus. The last fact is connected with the emission of neurohypophysis oxytocin and vasopressin. Vasopressin, in turn, getting to the medial Eminence, affects the permeability of the glandular cells adenogipofiza, on the tone of branching in him of the blood vessels and thereby acting as a cofactor, enhances action hypothalamic neurosecretory (Kobayashi, 1966).
The question of the effect negiotiations formations on brain hypothalamus is very important, as the hypothalamus has numerous links with the cortical of the brain. It is known that the development of experimental neurosis leads to changes estrous cycles (E. B. Pavlov, 1963). Irritation of electrical shock, brain causes ovulation in rabbits (Marshall, Verney, 1951). Injection of brine into the bark leverages the impact of luteinizing hormone i (Taleisnik, Caligaris, De Olmos, 1962, and others). On the other hand, it is known that removing hemispheres cortex of rats does not violate the estrous cycles and the ability to conceive, pregnancy and childbirth, although maternal instinct when it is weakened (N. Century Romodanovsky, 1958), and the weight of the ovaries and uterus does not reduce (Greer, Schull, 1957). Such contradictory data depend, probably from what is directly cortex does not affect the function of the pituitary as amended ovarian function.
Slightly different impact of influence emanating from more ancient structures cortical part of the brain (Fig. 4). In particular, the impact on almond kernel finanzpolitische system affects the estrous cycles, until they cease when you remove kernels. Almond-shaped complex stimulates the secretion of both FSH and LH. Off olfactory stimuli by narcotizirutego nasal mucosa in some cases leads to the development of so-called nathanieldiegot syndrome - offensive false pregnancy, therefore, to the release of significant amounts of LH. The removal of the olfactory bulbs in rats leads to atrophy of the ovaries (Whitten, 1956). A similar reaction can be obtained by influencing the hippocampus.


Fig. 4. The scheme of the projection of limbic and reticular system of higher mammals (Schreiber, 1963).
The limbic system, the projection of which is shaded, koltseobrazno covers the brain stem. Dotted shading shows the reticular system extending to the hypothalamus.