Rehabilitation (disabled) - restoration of disturbed functions of the organism (or compensation) and disability of patients and people with disabilities, aimed at the earliest possible and the most effective return them to society and to the socially useful work through public and social (medical, psychological, professional, social and economic) activities.
The rehabilitation needs of disabled persons, as well as long and often ill and unable to work due to a congenital disease or defect.
In Russia rehabilitation is one of the important tasks of the state and public organizations. The right of citizens to free rehabilitation assistance enshrined in legislation on health care, labour, provision of pensions of workers in case of loss of working capacity, which provide for the material support of citizens for the whole period of incapacity.
In the complex of rehabilitation measures distinguish between medical, social and occupational (industrial) rehabilitation.
The medical rehabilitation is aimed at full or partial restoration or compensation of lost functions. In the process of medical rehabilitation use drug treatment, physiotherapy, kinesitherapy, mechanotherapy, occupational therapy, Spa treatment, etc.
The basic principle of medical rehabilitation - early inclusion in the complex treatment methods of rehabilitation treatment. Rehabilitation start to spend after the acute period of the disease, the children in early age.
Medical rehabilitation is carried out in all health care institutions, including sanatorium. Diverse health resort factors contribute to the improvement and consolidation of the results of rehabilitation. A great role in medical rehabilitation plays appropriate training and proper use of paramedical personnel working in offices and departments of physical therapy, labor-, mechano-, physiotherapy. Conscientious and skilled nurses and paramedics, attentive and tolerant attitude to the patients undergoing rehabilitation, largely to ensure its success. It should be borne in mind that many seriously ill patients in need of rehabilitation measures, as a rule, have lost faith in the possibility of returning to work and life in society. Because of this a special place in the work of the medical staff must take the methods of psychological influence on such patients, which requires knowledge of medical psychology. An important place in the complex of measures of medical rehabilitation is reconstructive surgery. Operations undertaken in order to restore lost functions, are often of considerable weight. The role of nursescaring for such patients, as in the early postoperative period and in the recovery period is especially great.
The social rehabilitation is a complex of educational, technical, and organizational measures to restore the lost self-help skills at home and in society (toilet, cooking, use of household appliances, transport, access to public institutions, and so on). This kind of rehabilitation involves the design and industrial production of special appliances and devices, communication and travel, the nature of which depends on the type of damage and disease severity (carriages, cars, dictaphones, selector devices, and so on), as well as training in the use of them.
For social rehabilitation are and organizational measures, particularly in relation to housing provision: the provision of apartments on the first floor, preferably in homes with all amenities, the provision of telephone communication, approaching the place of residence to the production and other paramedical personnel working on site independently or under supervision of the doctor performing the patronage of the chronically sick and disabled, was to play a significant role in the implementation of measures for social rehabilitation. On the tact, perseverance and a good knowledge of opportunities of the patient and the implementation of other necessary measures largely depends on the efficiency of social rehabilitation.
Rehabilitation professional (production) - a set of organizational-technical and educational measures to restore or increase employment, professional skills. This kind of rehabilitation consists of professional training or retraining, development and creation of special devices and tools for work, improvement of working places people with disabilities on the same production, the organization of the specialized enterprises for the disabled. When conducting vocational rehabilitation must consider: the nature of the pathological process, physical abilities and the formation of a sick or disabled person, the demand of national economy in specialists of different profile, the desire of a disabled person to buy this or that speciality. In respect of long-term and often ill industrial rehabilitation in some cases limited to early rational employment, taking into account the above principles.
Production rehabilitation in industry and agriculture has certain peculiarities. In conditions of industrial production should strive for the return of persons with disabilities on a former place of work (by improving jobs).
In terms of agriculture , appropriate use of disabled persons at work in Supervisory, accounting and managerial apparatus, cultural and educational institutions: clubs, houses of culture, libraries, etc., When conducting rehabilitation in rural areas particularly large role nurses working at feldsher-midwife stations independently. Active clinical supervision in the group have been continuously and frequently ill, participation in job placement of these patients, timely sending them to the doctor, wide attraction of the public to the work of rehabilitation - all this is practically important task nurses.
Rehabilitation (adaptation) of children. The efficiency of rehabilitation of children largely depends on the psychological impact of a sick child, proper upbringing and development of their personality. When planning the rehabilitation measures should take into account the forecast of disease, complications and measures for their prevention. For rehabilitation of disabled children in primary role belongs to the early inculcation of skills and appropriate vocational guidance of young people with disabilities.
Rehabilitation direction in health care and social security that has significantly increased during the years of Soviet power, gives an opportunity to a large number of long-term and often ill prevent disability, and many disabled people return to the labour market and public life. Cm. also, Social security, Employment.