X-ray examination of the duodenum

Duodenum is easily accessible to x-ray study, and recognition of her diseases takes x-rays prominent place.
Form duodenal ulcers often is close to the horseshoe (Fig. 94), but varies depending on the Constitution and regulations of the body, varying widely, acquiring the form of a ring, bending, forming a loop-like shape of the race. The position and shape of the duodenal bulb also vary depending on the constitutional features (Fig. 95).

Fig. 94. Normal mileage duodenum (x-ray).
Fig. 95. Normal onion duodenum (x-ray).

The shape of the bulb may vary in different phases of the study, depending on the contractile activity of the muscles. Accordingly, during the curvature of the stomach in the bulb distinguish between large and small curvature. The value of the bulbs varies depending on the tone. It may be small in a normal tone th extended under reduced, and acquiring sometimes large.
In the study of the duodenum in a state of artificial hypotension can see Tatarov nipple, which forms on the internal contour of a double impression, resembling in its Latin form of the letter W (Fig. 96). Under pathological conditions Tatarov nipple deformed, increasing, and with tumors creates a filling defect in the internal contour of the duodenum.

Fig. 96. Normal duodenum in a state of artificial hypotension (x-ray).
Arrow denotes Tatarov papilla.

About the tone of the bulbs can be judged by the nature of its discharge. If the bulb is emptied quickly, before reaching her tight filling, it indicates a rising tone. Slow emptying, with considerable balance, may reflect lowering the tone.
Often found so-called duodenalis. Moreover, besides the low location, duodenum is extended and expanded. In such cases, the expansion and bulbs. Duodenalis is found together with the General splanchnotomy or in the presence of the mesentery of the duodenum.
The relief of the mucous membrane of the bulb and the rest of the run of the duodenum is different. In the area of the bulb is dominated by longitudinal folds, repeating the relief of the mucous of the output section of the stomach. The folds of the bulbs are clearly visible either at the point of reducing it, or for compression. Starting from the top of the tribe of the duodenum, are typical carcinosin folds with transverse and forming Cirrus pattern similar to that found in the small intestine.