X-ray examination of the colon

X-ray examination of the large intestine is done by filling it by receiving barium suspension inside and injection of contrast medium with enema (barium enema).
Each of these methods has its advantages and its purpose. Oral filling enables to study the character of formation of fecal post, promotion Kala, mark private peculiarities of impellent functions of the large intestine and Australia, does not provide further information about the width of the lumen and the condition of the mucosa. Introduction contrast mass using enemas creates the possibility to obtain information about available for x-ray examinations of the morphological features, but the only use of this method it is possible to collect only scant information about the functional manifestations. Therefore, for an exhaustive examination of the colon is necessary to use both methods (Fig. 112).

Fig. 112. The colon (x-ray).
and after 24 h after intake of barium suspension; b - after filling in contrast enema.

An important additional tool for studying the colon is the method of double-contrast barium suspension and air that is done by blowing last after partial emptying of the colon from the contrast enema. Using x-ray examinations established that in normal shape, position, and length of the colon are very diverse.
Australia segmentation to a certain extent can characterize the tone of the colon. If you raise the tone of austri often alternate, their number increased, Australia segmentation deep. If hypotension number of Austr small, alternating them rare, maggioncalda jumper wide. Australia figure out at pronounced hypotension bowel Similar picture can appear throughout the colon and in its separate parts.
The relief of the mucosa of the colon is very plastic, and its variability in normal conditions expressed quite well.
According to the degree of excitability of mucous there are two types of relief colon (Knothe, 1932): the relief of the calm type and topography "excited" type. In the film "quiet" type of relief folds presents sparingly, the gaps between them wide, after emptying gaustro remains a large amount of contrast agent. For better detection and visibility of such relief at the pictures have to resort to dosed compression. The relief is "excited" type is characterized by the fact that the folds of mucous close one to another, as if depressed. The pattern is complex, the gaps between the folds narrowed (Fig. 113).

Fig. 113. The normal relief mucosa of the large intestine (x-ray). a - the so-called quiet type; b - the so-called type excited.

The normal relief of the mucous membrane of the colon may be subject variability under the influence of palpation or impact when used in a contrasting mix tannins used in the last time in over.
Change the position and size of the colon. Along with variations of a norm can meet various deviations of position and size of the colon. These include the large intestine with the formation of a long incremental loops (dolichocolon). These loops can serve as a source of occurrence of acute intestinal obstruction due to twisting or squeezing them. Lengthening with the simultaneous extension of the lumen provides a picture of the giant colon (megacolon) or only the sigmoid colon (megasygma).
Among anomalies colon special place occupies the disease Girlspring. The colon is very long and the width of the light, its walls were thickened, the mucosa is swelled state, which may depend on inflammatory and from congestive changes. Sometimes this condition applies mainly to the sigmoid colon, and the capacity of its likely to rise sharply, reaching up to several meters. When conducting contrast studies with orally administered barium suspension in the colon can form long rubble contrast Cala observed over many days and even weeks.
Changing the position of the colon may be encountered when eventrated and hernias of the diaphragm. In some cases, the colon can penetrate into the chest at a very great height. At infringement of an integrity of the diaphragm with the emergence of large intestine hernia is visible above the diaphragm.
Original painting offset all intestinal gives the common mesentery for thin and thick intestines that is called mesenterium commune. In such cases, all the small intestine is located on the right, and the fat on the left. Cecum and ascending part occupy a Central position, and the other departments form a conglomerate of loops in the left half of the abdomen.
Periodicheskie adhesions can lead to a sharp change of the form of the colon in connection with the formation of inflection on soil development of scar concretions.
Significant bias created by increases in abdominal organs and lymph nodes, at intraabdominal effusions, when abdominal tumors, pregnancy, etc.
Functional disorders of the large intestine mainly connected with changes of tone and Oxytocics activity of the muscles of the intestine and motor functions. Oxytocics radiographically slowly, and it can only be judged on manifestations of tone and Australia.
Infringements of impellent functions - dyskinesia - combined with changes of tone and accompanied either the acceleration or deceleration of promoting the contents of the colon.
The slowdown in the promotion of intestinal contents can spread throughout its course (diffuse kolotas) or in any of its departments (right-handed, transverse or left kolotas).
Hypermotor dyskinesia appear accelerated promotion contrast contents of the colon with the spread or the entire colon, or certain departments that often occurs with limited colitis.