X-ray examination

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X - ray analysis is the use of x-ray radiation in medicine for studying the structure and functions of different organs and systems and recognition of diseases. X-ray examination is based on the unequal absorption of x-rays in different organs and tissues, depending on their size and chemical composition. The stronger absorbs this body x-ray radiation, the more intense cast their shadow on the screen or film. For x-ray studies of many authorities have resorted to the methods of artificial contrast. Into the cavity of the body, in its parenchyma or in the surrounding space type substance that absorbs x-rays to a greater or lesser extent than the analyzed body (see the Contrast of the shadow).
X-rays work can be represented in a simple diagram:
the x-ray source → object of study > receiver of radiation - > doctor.
The radiation source is the x-ray tube (see). Object of research is sick, aimed to identify pathological changes in his body. In addition, examine and healthy people to identify hidden diseases. As radiation detector used fluoroscopic screen or the cassette with the tape. With the help of the screen, produce x-rays (see), while the film - x-rays (see).
X-ray examination allows the study of the morphology and function of various systems and organs in the whole organism without violation of his life. It gives the opportunity to consider the organs and systems in different age periods, allows to detect even slight deviation from the normal pattern, and thus to put the timely and accurate diagnosis of diseases.
X-ray examination should always be conducted on a particular system. First, get acquainted with complaints and history of the diseases examined, then with the data of other clinical and laboratory research. This is necessary because an x-ray, despite its importance, there is only a link in a chain of clinical research. Then make a plan R. I., i.e., determine the sequence of application of certain techniques to obtain the required data. Doing R. I., begin the study of the submissions received (rentgenograficheskie and roentgenologically analysis and synthesis). The next step is the comparison of the x-ray data with results from other clinical studies (clinical and x-ray analysis and synthesis). Next, the data obtained are compared with the results of previous R. I. Re P. I. play an important role in the diagnosis of disease, as well as in the study of their dynamics, in monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.
The result of x-ray study is to draft conclusion, which indicates the diagnosis of disease or failure of the received data the most likely diagnostic capabilities.
Subject to proper equipment and techniques R. I. is safe and can not cause harm to the subject. But even relatively low doses of x-ray radiation has the potential to cause changes in chromosome apparatus of germ cells that can occur in subsequent generations harmful for posterity changes (abnormal development, lower total resistance, and so on). Although each x-ray examination is accompanied by the absorption of a number of x-ray radiation in the body of the patient, including his gonads, the probability of this kind of genetic damage in each case is negligible. However, due to the very high incidence of P. I. a security issue in General deserves attention. Therefore, by special decree envisages the system of measures to ensure security P. I.
Among these measures are: 1) conduct R. I. strict clinical indications and special care when examining children and pregnant women; 2) application of advanced x-ray equipment, which allows to minimize radiation exposure to the patient (in particular, the use of electron-optical amplifiers and television devices); 3) the application of various means of protection of patients and staff from the action of x-ray radiation (enhanced filtration radiation, the use of optimal conditions shooting, an additional protective screens and diaphragms, protective clothing and protectors of sexual glands etc); 4) reduction of the duration of x-ray research and the time spent by staff in the scope of x-ray radiation; 5) systematic dosimetric control of radiation loads of patients and personnel of x-ray rooms. Data dosimetry is recommended to bring in a special column of the form, which is given a written report produced by R. I.
X-ray examination can be performed only by a physician with special training. High qualification of the doctor-radiologist ensures the efficiency of x-ray diagnostics and maximum security of all x-ray procedures. Cm. also x-ray Diagnostics.


X-ray examination (x-ray) is the use of x-ray radiation in medicine for studying the structure and functions of different organs and systems and recognition of diseases.
X-ray examination is widely used not only in clinical practice but in anatomy, where it is used for the purposes normal, pathological and comparative anatomy, and physiology, where the x-ray examination gives the opportunity to observe the natural course of physiological processes, such as reducing cardiac muscles, respiratory movements of the diaphragm, peristaltic activity of the stomach and intestines, etc., Example of application of x-ray studies in the preventive purposes is fluorography (see) as a method of mass examination of large human populations.
The main methods of x-ray examinations are fluoroscopy (see) and radiography (see). Fluoroscopy is the most simple, cheap and easy method of roentgenologic examination. A significant advantage of the x-ray is the ability to perform research in various arbitrary projections by changing body position analyzed with respect to the x-ray tube and a translucent screen. This multi-axis (poleposition) study reveals during radiographic the most advantageous position of the investigated organ, which thus identified with the greatest clarity and completeness of such alterations. In some cases it is possible not only to watch but also to feel the monitoring body, such as the stomach, gall bladder, loops of intestine by a so-called x-ray palpation implemented in gloves from lead-impregnated with rubber or by using a special device, called distinctia. Such targeted palpation (and compression) under the control of translucent screen provides valuable information about smaduamei (or nesmeshivaemost) studied organ, its physiological or pathological mobility, pain sensitivity, etc.
Along with this, fluoroscopy is considerably inferior radiography in respect of the so-called resolution, i.e. the detection of parts, because x-rays are compared with translucent image on the screen more fully and accurately reproduces the structural features and details of the examined organs (lungs, bones, internal relief of stomach and intestines, and so on). In addition, fluoroscopy, compared with x-rays is accompanied by higher doses of x-rays, i.e. high radial loads on patients and staff, and this requires, despite fast transient nature of the observed on the screen of phenomena, to limit the time of scanning. Meanwhile, well-done x-rays, reflecting structural and other characteristics of the investigated organ, available for multiple studies by different people at different times and is, thus, the objective of the document, which has not only clinical or scientific, but expert, and sometimes forensic value.
Radiography produced again, an objective method of dynamic observation of the course of various physiological and pathological processes in the test body. A series of x-rays of a certain part of the skeleton of the same child, made at different times, allows to trace in detail the process of development of ossification of this child. A series of x-rays produced over a long period of flow of a number of chronic recurrent diseases (hospital disease stomach and duodenal ulcer, tuberculosis, tuberculosis of bones and joints, rickets and other chronic diseases of the bones), giving you all the details of the evolution of the pathological process. The described feature standard x-ray allows to use this method of roentgenologic examination also as a method of monitoring the effectiveness of therapeutic measures.

  • The basic installation and setup in radiography
  • X-ray examination of children