X-ray examination

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This is because for the correct judgments about certain pathological changes in any organ, body part or anatomical education, you need to know normal x-ray picture of the studied area. Normal x-ray anatomy is studied on the basis of the so-called standard, typical, common projections, research, knowledge of which, as well as the ability to reproduce them in radiography, is obligatory for the doctor-radiologist, and his assistant- roentgenologist. This is especially important when evaluating paired anatomic formations, such as joints, bone channels optic nerves, individual elements of the temporal bone (pyramid, mastoid), and so on, Sometimes only a careful study of two x-ray symmetric body parts right and left side, which is produced in exactly the same methodological and technical conditions, you can select one of them is the presence of pathological changes. It is equally important to obtain the same x-rays under dynamic observation over the course of pathological processes from time to time, in particular in the assessment of treatment outcomes, processes of healing of fractures, etc.,
Planar images radiographically studied objects depend on the direction of the chief, or a Central beam of x-ray radiation in relation to a particular plane of the object of research and the position of the latter in relation to the plane of the x-ray screen when x-rays or x-ray films in x-ray. In radiology, as in anatomy, there are three main or basic plane of the study in relation to the person, being in vertical position: sagittal, front and horizontal.
Sagittal plane Passing from front to back, is called the median, or the median. It divides the body into two symmetrical opposite half. All other sagittal plane parallel to the median and go to the right or left of it. The frontal plane parallel to the plane of the forehead and, therefore, perpendicular to the median plane. They divide the body into two parts - the front and back. The horizontal plane is perpendicular to both vertical planes - sagittal and frontal.
When the sagittal direction of the Central x-ray beam perpendicular to the surface of the body turns frontal projection. If the rays go from front to back, i.e. studied is face to the tube and back to the screen or film, this projection called the front to the rear. When passing beams formed from back in the rear-front projection. Frontal view is often called straight (front or back, depending on the side of the body facing the film). When passing beams in the frontal plane is obtained sagittal projection, or as it is more commonly called, the side (left or right depending on the side of the body, adjacent to the film). Horizontal projection, or as they are commonly known, axial, produced by directing a beam of radiation along the long axis of the body.
Besides direct projections generated during the perpendicular rays of the body of the study, there are oblique projections obtained by tilting x-ray tube in the right or left side of the body, and in the cranial - brain or the opposite - caudal direction. Oblique projection can be obtained also in the relevant pans or tilts investigated.
With the purpose of convenience, accuracy and speed of installation of a tube in a predetermined position tripods modern x-ray machines (see) is equipped with devices for centration, angle-finders is considered and linear scales, as well as devices for fixation of patients at the pictures.