Radiography head

  • The basic installation and setup in radiography
  • When x-rays of the skull believed to be the sagittal plane on arrow (sagittal) seam, front - anterior to the external auditory passage through the base of the zygomatic arches and the horizontal, or the plane of the skull base, through lower edge of the orbit and external auditory passages. Directing the Central ray in the sagittal plane from front to back, get straight back (front-back) x-ray of the skull, and from back - front (back-front) x-rays. At the direction of the Central beam in a vertical plane (left-to-right or right-to-left, respectively, received the right side or the left side of the x-rays. Directing the Central beam along the vertical axis of the skull perpendicular to its horizontal plane, are the so-called axial radiographs - front (or chin) in the direction of the rays in cranio-caudal direction and rear axle, or parietal, at reverse motion rays. Radiograms skull is recommended cassette size 24X30 cm, when the focal length of 100 cm weight fine-focus x-ray tube with the use of screening lattice. The head of the patient should be fixed. Breathing in the time of the snapshot detained. The scenes - see Radiography.
    Lateral projection (Fig. 1, 1). Lateral chest x-ray is used most often. It usually begin the study of the skull. It can be produced both in horizontal and vertical position of the studied. The Central beam is directed perpendicular to the plane of the cassette at its centre. Head stack when the patient on his stomach, and in vertical position establish such a way that the sagittal plane is parallel to the tape. Crown should defend from the top edge of the tape to 3 cm, and the back of the head and chin have the same distance from the side edges of the cassette, which is achieved by the extension of the head before crossing its horizontal plane with the long axis of the tape at an angle of 60 degrees. Proof of the correct installation on a normal x-ray generators image Turkish saddle and wedge-shaped outgrowths. In severe condition of the patient side radiograph can be obtained by its position on the back, vertically installed the cartridge and the horizontal direction of the rays.
    Straight front projection (Fig. 1, 2). The Central beam is directed perpendicular to the plane of the cassette at its centre. Sagittal (median) the plane of the skull should coincide with the longitudinal axis of the tape. The face turned to the cassette is in contact with the plane deck desktop or wall-mounted screening grid (vertical position of the patient) forehead and nose to nose coincided with the center of the cassette. In order not to "cut off" of calvarium, it is desirable to have between the crown and the top edge of the cartridge distance of about 3 see Proof of the correct installation is complete and balanced picture of the x-ray picture of both halves of the skull.
    Straight rear projection (Fig. 1, 3). Unlike earlier projection, head turned to the cassette back of the head. Sagittal (median) plane must be aligned with the longitudinal axis of the tape, and the horizontal plane perpendicular to its surface. This projection is used much less frequently previous.
    Axial front chin projection. Head tilted back and touches the tape chin and the front surface of the neck. The corners of the lower jaw must be located at the middle of the tape. Sagittal (median) the plane of the skull should run the longitudinal axis of the tape cartridge, and the horizontal plane is parallel to the surface (Fig. 1, 4). When the colon and short neck when not enough to bend the patient's head backwards, it is recommended to put under the chin tube (Fig. 1, 5).
    Axial back (parietal) projection. This projection can be performed both at the horizontal position of the patient on snimaem the table (Fig. 1,6)and vertical position of the patient and deck universal tripod or wall grilles. In the latter case, the patient is sitting on the chair throwing his head back until it touches the top of the head with the deck plane or wall lattice (Fig. 1,7).
    The Central beam should be centered between the corners of the lower jaw, which should be located at the middle of the cassettes at equal distances from its long sides.
    The accessory nasal sinuses. X-rays of the sinuses of the nose can be performed both in horizontal and vertical position of the studied. The vertical position is used when you suspect the presence of liquid content in the sinuses (blood, pus, and so on) to identify horizontal fluid level. Mainly used one of the two projections: peredneperegorodochnoj frontal or front-bow. When prednovogodnej projection (Fig. 1, 8) chin touches the tape 18X24 cm or 13X18 cm to cross the axis was held under the lower lip, and the horizontal plane of the skull was with the plane cassette 45 degrees. When the anterior frontal-nasal projection (Fig. 1,9) forehead and nose touch with cassette, transverse axis of which must be located 1.5 cm below the bridge of the nose.
    The Central beam is sent to the centre tapes at an angle of 30 degrees. When all of the images head women should be removed from the hair crests, hairpins, etc.,
    The lower jaw (Fig. 1, 10). For a snapshot of the lower jaw of the patient is laid on its side, the corresponding side of the investigated part of the jaw (right and left half jaw removed separately). Under the cassette enclose the platen or a square so that the tape was under an angle of 25 degrees to the plane of the table. The Central beam is directed at an angle of 20 degrees cranial under the angle opposite half of the lower jaw.
    Teeth are a very common object radiography. In the pictures of the teeth should be visible all essential parts of a tooth: the crown, the neck, the root system, pulp chamber, the tooth canal. The listed items are usually available on intraoral images, in which the film is set in the mouth and pressed a finger of the patient to the investigated tooth. For this purpose, pre-cut pieces of film 3x4 cm or 4 X 5 cm, cut corners, to protect mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and wrapped in pairs (for greater reliability and avoid artifacts on one of the films), first in an opaque, and then in waterproof paper. Some factories produce finished envelopes with films for images of teeth (see x-ray). To avoid the projection of shortening or lengthening of the tooth on the photos, you must abide by the following basic rule (Fig. 1, 11). The Central beam shall be directed to the top of the tooth root perpendicular to the bisector of the angle formed by the film plane and the long axis of the tooth. For full use of film is necessary that its land was not more than 2-3 mm per line teeth crowns and is parallel to the line.
    All of the above styling for head shots are relatively complex, so they are described in detail. Even more complex installation (temporal bone, channels optic nerves, and others) are described in a special guides and they are not presented here. Laying of the other areas of the body are more simple and are provided below only in a condensed statement and schematic form.