X-ray examination of children

When there is clinical evidence on x-ray examination can be directed children of any age, starting with the neonatal period. Every direction of the child to study x-ray diagnostic purposes (especially repeated) shall be justified by the attending physician and recorded in medical history, the history of development or ambulatory card. Preventive research (see Fluorography) may be subjected to the children starting from 12 years and older.
X-ray examination of children in methodological respect is the same as x-ray adults, and x-ray examination of young children and especially newborns and children of early age requires the use of special teaching methods. Therefore, large children's hospitals should have specialized x-ray (surgical, therapeutic, rheumatology, tuberculosis and infectious departments) for radiographic examination of premature infants, newborns and children of early age. This requires strict compliance with sanitary and hygienic measures; preventing the spread of nosocomial infections (see). With top same purpose in the absence of specialized classrooms, for example in x-ray rooms clinics and polyclinics, it is advisable to produce a separate access for children younger and older age.
According to the "Rules of the device and operation of x-ray offices", approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR and the Presidium of the Central Committee of trade Union of medical workers, during the reception of children under the age of 14 x-ray examination should be carried out in three persons: the doctor-radiologist, roentgenologists and a nurse or a nurse) Department where the baby. The latter should accompany the child from the Department in the x-ray room and back again and to exercise the care and monitoring of the child throughout the procedure of study, and to assist in its implementation. In the procedure of x-ray Cabinet must not be simultaneously more than one child.
The necessity of special instructional techniques x-ray examination of young children because children are usually frightened of the situation of the x-ray study and behave nervously.


Fig. 2. Auxiliary locking devices for x-ray examinations of children.

The radiological examination of newborns and infants in rentgenometricheskikh offices should take special locking device (Fig. 2).
The child's body has an increased sensitivity to x-rays, which requires particularly careful observance of measures antiradiation protection. Therefore, x-ray examination should reliably protect the whole body of the child, especially in the area of the gonads (sex glands), from unused x-ray radiation, applying simultaneously devices to limit the irradiated field (aperture, tubes), as well as simultaneous cartridge imaging and possibly short exposure at the pictures. It should be guided by a correction factor of exhibitions, taking the exposure for adults, 1 (see x-ray).
The entire staff of the pediatric x-ray rooms have along with high professional qualifications differ loving, attentive and sensitive towards children in General and to the sick child in particular, be able to quickly and correctly to serve the sick child and to find the needed contact, given his age and character. To distract attention of children it is useful to be easily disinfected toys, sets of color pictures in the form of slides, etc., In cases when large children's hospitals are organised points ambulance with round-the-clock work of x-ray rooms, it is necessary to appoint an independent duty, especially at night, the most qualified of rentgenologists.

X-ray examination of children is applied in all spheres of Pediatrics. X-ray study on clinical indications are children of all ages, starting with the neonatal period. Preventive x-ray examination is carried out only children over 12 years by fluorography.
Due to the high sensitivity of the child's body to ionizing radiation is preferable for maximum reduction of radiation exposure to produce x-rays, instead of x-rays, especially in children of early age. With this purpose it is necessary to make photos at a voltage of 60 - 65 kV, with minimal exposure to conduct an optimal filtering screening lattices and additional filters to apply highly sensitive intensifying screens and x-ray film, increase to the extent possible skin and focal length. Given the particular sensitivity to radiation and surface location of the gonads should be carefully stop down any field of study, using the appropriate tubes, and various safety appliances.
Application of electronic-optical amplifier (see) significantly reduces the child and service personnel dose. If CT is suitable for simultaneous and cassettes. X-ray examination of newborns and infants spend using assistive devices (Fig. 1), which allows support staff (sisters, nurses) during the study to be behind the screens watching the child through lead-impregnated glass. An x-ray of lungs and heart newborns and infants spend at vertical position investigated; the digestive tract - in horizontal or vertical, depending on the purpose.
Cm. also X-ray analysis (in children).