Rentgenotechnika

Rentgenotechnika - section of radiology, dealing with the study of physical and technical properties of x-rays, as well as methods of calculation. design, production and operation of x-ray machines and auxiliary equipment x-ray rooms.
The beginning of the development rentgenotechnika is connected with the discovery of x-rays (see X-ray) and refers to the end of the 19th century. For rather small period of time in several decades rentgenotechnika emerged as an important specialty, which have great scientific and practical importance in various areas of theoretical and practical activities.
Rentgenotechnika widely used in metallurgy for radiographic metals, crystallography, spectrograph, in a structural analysis.
Rentgenotechnika is also used in Geology in the study of minerals; in the timber, light and food industry; merchandising; in biology (plant growing), Zoology and animal breeding, genetics, veterinary medicine, paleontology, anthropology, and comparative anatomy.
Rentgenotechnika is also used in the court examination in customs practice, and even in art, where rentgenotechnika, in particular, used for scientific analysis of the authenticity of the paintings.
Rentgenotechnika in medicine highlighted in a special section, which became the base of medical radiology to help meet the increasing technical requirements of radiology in the field of x-ray diagnostics (see),radiotherapy (see), as well as requirements of objective means of measuring the energy of x-ray radiation (see Dosimetry, Doses of ionizing radiation) and ways of protection from penetrating radiation (see Antiradiation protection).
Among the various scientific and practical fields of knowledge, the most significant role in the development rentgenotechnika played physics, mathematics, chemistry, optics, electrical engineering, mechanics, in particular telemechanics, electronics, etc. This impact was mutually fruitful, as the development rentgenotechnika in turn had a positive effect on subsequent development sucked her of Sciences, which is especially clearly expressed in the application example rentgenotechnika in theoretical, experimental and applied physics.
Since the development rentgenotechnika was prepared by the whole course of historical process of development of science and technology, was natural that, despite the relative imperfection means of communication (radio was still in its infancy) and different level of technical development in different countries of Europe and America, most laboratories in many countries have successfully mastered the techniques of reproduction of experience in x-Ray soon after the publication of his classic work "On a new kind of rays", named after him.
Progressive doctors of the late 19th and early 20th century was immediately appreciated the importance of the practical application of x-ray radiation in medicine and in cooperation with the leading engineers and technicians that time began to develop rentgenotechnika devices for medical purposes.
The first rentgenotechnika in Russia was the inventor of radio, A. S. Popov, made in 1896 in Kronstadt x-ray tube and brought together the country's first x-ray machine.
In the same year in the USA Edison designed the experimental x-ray machine on which it was possible to do simple x-rays and x-ray (Fig. 2).
It took, however, half a century of development rentgenotechnika, so instead of imperfect equipment x-ray rooms of the first decade after the discovery of x-rays appeared modern, comfortable, fully automated and secure rentgenotechnika devices for x-ray diagnostics and radiotherapy.
Pioneers rentgenotechnika sought first positive practical results in their primitive x-ray rooms (Fig. 1) with great difficulty and risk to life and health. As sources of high voltage was applied inductors, and x-ray generators radiation served gassy ion tube, very unreliable and difficult to manage.
Tripods were fragile, inconvenient and dangerous as against electric shock, and in the sense of an almost complete lack of protection of patients and staff from the effects of penetrating radiation.
Only after the first radiologists and their patients experienced the tragic consequences of biological action of x-rays were taken serious search of the necessary means and ways of protection.
However, even rational location for exploring the doctor at the x-raying relative to the x-ray tube, the investigated object and translucent screen was reached not at once. So, X-rays (1895), showing through my hand was between the x-ray tube and translucent screen facing fluorescing surface of the tube.
Salvioni (Salvioni, 1896) - the author of the prototype of the modern CryptoAPI (the device that allows to Shine through available in the room), already knowing the consequences of biological action of x-rays, offered a more rational than X-rays, accommodation researcher at the x-raying. He set translucent screen between the irradiated object and researcher, drawing screen fluorescing surface is not the x-ray tube as it did X-rays, and by the researcher, i.e. the way it is currently practiced.
This at first sight a simple solution created in the future, the necessary preconditions for rational protection investigating physician from the direct x-ray radiation.
At the present time (due to application of modern x-ray machines of various kinds of protective materials and devices on the covers of x-ray tubes and their anodes on the x-ray tripod, use of protective barriers, screens, aprons, gloves, etc.) the personnel of x-ray offices practically protected not only from primary and secondary, scattered radiation.
And yet in the light of modern genetic research and data on long-term genetic effects of ionizing radiation problem antiradiation protection (see) continues to be very relevant. It requires a radical solution of further joint efforts of engineers, physicists, biologists and doctors.
A serious obstacle to the development of medical rentgenotechnika in the first decade was a low power x-ray equipment and the need in this connection to use large exhibitions at the pictures. The resulting so on", dynamic blur did x-rays technically flawed and unsuitable for qualified radiology, and a number of areas of the human body and did was not available x-ray study.
In the Italo-Abyssinian war 1896, and then in the Russian-Japanese war 1904 - 1905 x-ray diagnostic work has consisted mainly of the recognition of gross lesions of bones and localization of foreign phone For picture limbs were required exposure time of 30 seconds. up to 1 minutes, the chest - about 2 minutes, and for picture pelvic - 4-5 minutes These exhibitions were used in x-ray rooms military hospitals Khabarovsk, Nikolaevsk, Vladivostok, Chita and Harbin, in the besieged Port Arthur and on the cruiser "Aurora", participated in the battle of Tsushima. On Board of the Aurora in the wheelhouse of wireless telegraphy by the efforts of pioneer naval radiology of a senior doctor cruiser C. S. Kravchenko was equipped with x-ray machine, which drew its current of high voltage induction coil Ruhmkorf, also served to generate radio waves.
A significant impetus for the further development rentgenotechnika appeared in 1904 the proposal of the American Snuka to replace the inductor as a source of high voltage high voltage transformer with mechanical rotating rectifier AC high voltage. This greatly increased the power of x-ray machines and improved conditions of work x-ray tubes.
About 10 years later Coolidge (W. D. Coolidge) successfully completed lasted from 1905 work on the improvement of x-ray tubes (see). The result is a vacuum tube with nakalivanija cathode, reliable and well-regulated, soon falling everywhere not only capricious and difficult ion (gas) tube, but other less successful designs already available in the different countries of x-ray tubes with nakalivanija cathode.
The study of patent literature industrialized countries shows that subsequently occurred (and up to present time there is a process of continuous improvement different rentgenotechnika devices, units and components of x-ray machines and auxiliary equipment x-ray rooms (screening grids, negatoscopes, fotolaboratorija equipment), as well as receivers of x-ray energy (films, augmentative and translucent screens).


Continuously continue to improve the scheme of x-ray equipment by improving rectifying devices replacement kenotron more comfortable and durable telenowyny rectifiers, supply these facilities more perfect systems of adjustment, stabilization and compensation of voltage and current, as well as a sound system and control instrumentation, providing automatic and full control over work.
Especially significant progress has been made as regards the protection of patients and personnel of x-ray rooms from defeat high-voltage current, and antiradiation protection.
A radical solution to the problem electrical safety has become possible since, when in the second quarter of the 20th century was mastered production of x-ray machines so-called closed type, in which all current-carrying parts of high voltage were reliably isolated from accidental contact.
Currently this is achieved in two ways: either by using high-voltage isolated cables connecting high-voltage devices with the x-ray tube (Fig. 3), or by creating so-called block devices. The last method is that all the high-voltage device together with the x-ray tube is mounted in a common metal casing, sealed, reliably isolated and grounded in which leave only a small window to exit the useful beam of x-rays. Oil, which is usually used as insulating and cooling medium, performs at the same time, and the role of the first filter, absorbing the soft part of x-ray radiation.
Practical introduction into clinical practice of radioactive isotopes and accelerators of charged particles for the purposes of radiation therapy (telugunewstoday, the betatrons and other sources of radiation high energy) solved the problem further increase tension in rentgenoterapevticheskie facilities because the penetrating power of radiation of the most powerful modern installations for radiotherapy significantly inferior to the specified new sources of radiant energy. Improvement rentgenoterapevticheskie plants currently under way, along with settings for static irradiation installations for mobile irradiation techniques (see X-ray machines).
Although the design of facilities for treatment because of the relative homogeneity of procedures much easier, than design of x-ray installations, however, and modern installations for radiotherapy includes a complex system of safety locks and relay devices, and integrated dosimeters, automatically disables the device after receiving a preset dose of radiation. In addition, units for mobile irradiation techniques are complex mechanical systems that provide certain types of smooth movement of x-ray tube in the process of irradiation depending on the nature of the applied method (rotary, convergent) therapy.
Now before rentgenotechnika, using the achievements of modern science and technology, new prospects associated with the implementation in practice of medical rentgenotechnika electro-optical converters and amplifiers x-ray image, and also with application of the principles of television in medicine (Fig. 4). The use of these modern devices in x-ray diagnostic apparatuses, contributes significantly to improving the conditions of work of the doctor-radiologist, the possibility to work in the UN-shaded location, extension, demonstration of possibilities is very important for pedagogical purposes, and the main thing - a sharp reduction of occupational hazards due to significant reduction of radiation exposure for patients and staff x-ray rooms.

Fig. 1. One of the first x-ray units of a sample of 1896, which SEGU produced for the first time in France, a picture of a brush. Fig. 2. Edison (1896) are characterized designed by x-ray machine, brush his assistant using CryptoAPI. Fig. 3. Modern universal diagnostic x-ray machine at two workplaces.
Fig. 4. Stationary diagnostic x-ray unit with a television image.