Reproductive period

With the onset of puberty because of interrelated and interdependent processes in the Central and peripheral levels of the reproductive system, set a certain rhythm of its functioning, in which the woman lives during the reproductive period from 18 to 40 years.
The hypothalamic-pituitary system. The study of the role of the hypothalamus in the life of the body dedicated to numerous studies. Our task is not part of their detailed analysis. We will discuss only those data which are necessary for understanding the basic mechanisms that ensure the functioning of the reproductive system.
The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that enable communication between the mechanisms of carrying out the integration of the somatic and autonomic activity. He is particularly sensitive to the slightest changes in the internal environment of the body and produces in response to these changes appropriate behavioral acts. The special role of the hypothalamus in the activity of the reproductive system is predetermined its anatomical and functional proximity to the pituitary gland. Specific nuclei of the hypothalamus are different from other formations of the brain capacity of neurosecretion. In the neurons of the hypothalamus are formed releasing factors that regulate the secretion of genotype hormone adrenocorticotropic (ACTH), gonadotropic (FSH and LH), thyroid-stimulating [Grashchenkov N. I., 1964; vine A. M. and others, 1981]. The hypothalamus is an important part of the limbic and reticular brain systems and the main Department of the brain, linking it with peripheral parts of the reproductive system.
For the body of women in the reproductive period is characterized by normal formed a female phenotype: the correct development of the sexual organs and secondary sexual characteristics, regularity of menstruation, the ability to conceive within the first 1-2 years of sexual life without contraception, normal pregnancy, timely delivery and normal during the postnatal period. Menstruation after birth resume usually 6-8 weeks, fertility continues for the 20-24 years. Under normal sexual development are also observed female type of body hair growth of pubic hair, well expressed folding vaginal walls; the cervix parous women has a cylindrical shape. When vaginal examination body of the uterus, pear-shaped, normal size. The uterine appendages are not defined, their painless at a palpation, vaults deep, painless.
By the beginning of reproductive life span completes the formation of the General shape of a woman. The skin becomes smooth, elastic, net. Subcutaneous fat is deposited evenly, but in the larger the number concentrated in the breast, buttocks, thighs. Thus, breast acquire a spherical shape, and buttocks and thighs - roundness. The appearance of healthy women, as a rule, meets her passport age.
With the onset of puberty sex hormones are produced with a certain regularity and determine the processes of regeneration and proliferation endometrium with its subsequent secretory transformation. Estrogen and progesterone hormones also affect the motility of the fallopian tubes, cervical secretion glands, the proliferation of the vaginal epithelium, cyclic processes in mammary glands. Cyclic changes in the reproductive system in norm sufficiently clear, particularly in the bodies that have receptors for hormones; these changes are tests to determine the extent of ovarian hormonal activity (so-called functional diagnostics tests).
During the entire reproductive period a woman's body is designed to perform its core functions of reproduction. The hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and the ovaries, have, as noted, significant and diverse impact on the livelihoods of the female body, its General and sexual development. If hormonal influence is insufficient or excessive, then there are pathological condition, the result of which can be not only different by their nature, disorders of the reproductive system, and somatic diseases, which may have an adverse effect on the next for reproductive menopause. Knowledge of physiology, development, prosperity and extinction of the reproductive system allows to promptly detect any deviations from the physiological norm and eliminate them. This may contribute to the prevention and early diagnosis as pathological menopause, and the concomitant pathology, which most often occurs or is manifested in the climacteric period.
Thus, in the period of sexual development of the female body before menarche is not observed cyclic functioning of the reproductive system. With the onset of puberty for 25-30 years female body lives in a certain rhythm, due to cyclical activity of the reproductive system. Menopausal this rhythm is disturbed. A woman's body begins to exist in the other biological quality; all functions associated with the menstrual cycle, in varying degrees, are violated.