Respiratory virus infection

Respiratory virus infection is a large group of infectious diseases with lesions of the respiratory tract, varying in depth and the extent of spread (pharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia). These diseases are accompanied by more or less severe febrile response and symptoms of toxicosis. Up to 1953 diseases of this group had different names: feverish Cathars, seasonal catarrh, acute upper respiratory catarrh, etc. But found that a small number of patients developing acute catarrh of the upper respiratory tract bacterial, allergic, chemical or mechanical etiology. The absolute majority of patients with respiratory diseases are viral etiology.
The first respiratory viruses were isolated in 1953 and entered the group of adenoviruses. To date, there are 32 serologic types of adenoviruses source of human disease. Recently identified new viruses - pathogens of many acute respiratory diseases: respiratory syncytial (RS-viruses), the causative agents of infectious rhinitis - rhinoviruses (more than 50 types), paragrippe viruses (AT-1,-2, SA and M-25). The role in the occurrence of respiratory diseases enteroviruses (echo-4, 8, 9, 11, 18, 20, 25 and Coxsackie A-21, 24 and Coxsackie In-1,5) and reoviruses three serological types (R - respiratory, E-enteric and - orphan). To a group of pathogens respiratory viral infections is also the agent of Eton, which in 1963 was defined as Mycoplasma. Accordingly etiology classification of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI), according to which, in addition to influenza, are allocated paragrippe, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial, enterovirus and rhinoviral (synonym: infectious rhinitis, respiratory disease, acute rhinitis, common cold) disease. This group of diseases attributed primary atypical pneumonia. The differential diagnosis of diseases of this group is needed first account of the clinical manifestations of the disease: the degree of toxicity, the nature of the temperature reaction, the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the symptoms of the respiratory tract. So, for paragraphshall infection, minor severity of intoxication inherent incidence of laryngeal with symptoms of laryngitis and stenoziruyuschego groats; for adenovirus disease - exudative inflammation; connection intestinal disorders observed in diseases of entero-, reoviruses etiology. In all diseases may develop pneumonia, but most often they meet with the defeat syncytial virus.
Disease group respiratory viral infections are United not only by common clinical manifestations, and epidemiological features. They all have the same airborne transmission mechanism, only when enteroviral and adenovirus infections necessary to consider the possibility of enteric transmission. Respiratory virus infection are common in all geographic areas, often in the form of sporadic disease in the whole year, but possible and epidemic outbreaks in families, day-care centres (nurseries, gardens) and military units. For the emergence of epidemic outbreaks is set to a large concentration of people in one team. In autumn-winter and spring periods usually observed rise paragrapsh, rhinoviral (especially in cold and wet weather), respiratory syncytial, adenovirus disease. Some infections, in particular adenovirus, give outbreak and during the summer months. Most respiratory viral disease affecting primarily children, but can hurt and adults. Only rhinoviral disease are more common among adults than among children. The source of infection, as a rule, are sick people; some diseases and virus carriers (rhinoviral, respiratory syncytial and entero-, reoviruses).
Specific prevention respiratory viral diseases are not developed. Given that the vaccination is the most promising method to fight respiratory viral diseases, currently in our country and abroad is carried out big work on creation of vaccines.
Of great importance in the system of preventive measures has early recognition of disease, rapid and correct treatment in infectious hospital with the exception of the possibility of nosocomial infections (isolation rooms). Discharge of patients from hospital Pets after 7-10 days or 14 (entero-, reovirus infections) after the disappearance of clinical symptoms of the disease.
At occurrence of a group of diseases in the collectives must be quarantined for a period of not less than 10-12 days after the isolation of the last patient.
Should the current and final disinfection provided for droplet infections, and when adenovirus and entero-, reovirus diseases - for intestinal infections. Given the predisposing role adverse climatic conditions in some respiratory viral diseases, it is necessary to increase the body resistance, and to prevent hypothermia.
Cm. also Adenoviral infections, Flu, Paragrippe infection.