Rubber production

Rubber production - manufacturing of rubber products made of a mixture of rubber with other substances by special processing. The main raw material is natural or synthetic rubber. Synthetic rubber (styrene butadiene, butyl rubber, chloroprene, isoprene and others) are obtained by synthesis of chemicals (styrene, Acrylonitrile and other monomers). Once in the rubber vulcanization accelerators (turam, captax and others), antioxidants (Neeson D, zanaflex and others), a softener (petroleum jelly), fillers (soot and other) and other ingredients and subsequent vulcanization mixture heating with gray) is formed rubber. Operations of preparation of initial materials (drying, crushing, sifting) and manufacture of rubber compounds (on rollers or rubber) are accompanied by pollution fine dust toxic substances. When processing mixtures for calenders, syringe machines, injection moulding machines, presses) and vulcanization in the air of working premises can come products fuming parts of the rubber, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide (see), a pair of hydrocarbons (see), carbon monoxide (see) and others In the shop vulcanization work takes place in conditions of high air temperature. Working can develop occupational diseases of the upper respiratory tract (rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis), the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system.
Preventive measures: improvement of working conditions in rubber production is achieved by creating a new process equipment, automation and mechanization of technological processes, by establishing production lines, use the original substances in the form of granules or pastes. Mandatory monitoring of the air environment, the content of toxic substances does not exceed values that are valid sanitary standards, observance of rules of personal hygiene (washing hands before a meal, a shower after work, the use of protective clothing). For prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory tract, you need to plant health units to equip inhalatorium. Mandatory preliminary and periodic (2 times a year) medical tests. Contra-indications for admission to employment are diseases of the nervous system, chronic diseases of liver, kidneys and skin.

Rubber production - manufacturing of rubber products made of a mixture of rubber with other substances by special processing. The main material R. p. is rubber (natural and synthetic).
Sodium-butadiene rubber (SLE) is obtained by the polymerization of butadiene-1,3, the content of which in the finished product should be no more than 0.05%. Released from SLE unsaturated hydrocarbons (see) have a toxic effect.
The NBR (SKN) is obtained by joint polymerization of butadiene-1,3 and nitrile of acrylic acid (in the finished product not more than 0.1%). Nitrile of acrylic acid is a ethylene, in which one atom of hydrogen is replaced by langroup, which determines its high toxicity. Polychloroprene rubber produced by polymerization of 2-chloroprene-1,3. When heated these rubbers are allocated volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons having a strong toxic effect. The imposition of the skin produced rubber causing redness, weeping, swelling.
Polysulfide rubbers are obtained by interaction of chlorinated hydrocarbons fatty number or haloid-producing esters of fatty range polysulfides. Under heating allocated mixture of substances consisting of chlorinated hydrocarbons, ethyleneimine, connection type hornerkirchen with strong toxic effect. CIS-polybutadiene rubber is obtained as a result of polymerization of butadiene-1,3 in the environment of an organic solvent. When heated, this rubber may be released pair of used solvent and catalytic elements of the complex.
Of vulcanization accelerators are the most common captax, thiuram, diphenylguanidine and other Dust captax, apparently, can cause significant disorder of taste. Inhalation of dust turama workers is increasing sensitivity to alcohol, and the violation of kislotoobrazoutei and excretory functions of liver.
To activate the process of vulcanization use zinc oxide, magnesium, and others, to regulate the process - phthalic anhydride, as fillers - soot, colloidal kremnekislyh and plasticizers (oil, petroleum oils, bitumen and other). In the preparatory workshops in the hanging of chemicals, cooking pastes, loading of rubber and improvement of mixtures on rollers significant dust content of air. The main harm calender of departments is high air temperature during operation, rollers, syringe machines, drying cells, etc., and the allocation in the air of working premises of sublimation products ingredients of rubber mixtures. When assembling automobile tires periodically is "refreshing" details gasoline which vapours may enter the air of working premises. Hot vulcanization tires produced in autoclaves, individual presses and shaper-vulcanizers. The maintenance of these machines is hard physical work and takes place in conditions of high air temperature. When working presses, depending on the nature of the vulcanized product in the air of working premises can do a couple of hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide (see) and carbon monoxide (see). Rubber adhesives are made of different kinds of rubber and synthetic resins (see synthetic Resins). At the same time as solvents are used petrol (see), benzene (see), ethyl acetate, and their mixtures.
Preventive measures: application of dusty materials only in granular condition, their mechanized hanging download; mechanization of transportation of all materials and semi-finished products; replacement (where possible) bonding products of their forming, as well as the storage of petrol in banks with floats, and so on; recovery of vapors of solvents; automation of loading and unloading tires of the reformers; the supply of workers of the respective production process overalls; preliminary and periodic medical examinations of workers; sanitary instructing workers before entering on duty and again every 6 months.