The role of the gastrointestinal tract

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Hypersensitivity to food and, in particular, to cow's milk is more common in children under 2 years than older children or adults. This fact led to the most logical assumption about the physiological immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract as the main factor in the development of allergies. This view was confirmed by clinical observations: 1 or 2 years of life, the children were able to tolerate food that previously caused their allergic reactions. In addition, in the blood are precipitin and the hemagglutinin to cow milk proteins, sometimes the title of these antibodies is very high; in adults, a similar phenomenon is rare. There is reason to believe that the permeability of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract for macromolecules in children than in adults. Child from birth fed milk or baby soy formula, found higher levels of serum agglutinins to proteins of milk or soy than children who started to receive these compounds after 3 months of life [47]. It is also possible that one of the factors of increased sensitivity to milk in children is competition antigens. The newborn in response to massive impact foreign antigens in the form of cow's milk protein in effect a fairly active mechanism humoral immunity directed against antigens of milk. At an older age, when the child's body has already been in contact with many other antibodies and is under the influence of a larger number of antigens, activity of this mechanism with respect to cow milk proteins reduced.
In 1904, in the study of blood serum 2 weakened children through the reaction of precipitation was found that undigested egg protein is absorbed in the intestines [48]. Similar data on the absorption of unchanged casein milk received Modigliani and Benini in 1915 [49]. Schloss and Wortheri [50] with the reaction of precipitation and method of anaphylaxis on Guinea found that in children with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract protein milk or eggs can be absorbed into undigested, and staying a short time in the blood, then excreted in the urine within a few hours. Walzer [51], and Wilson and Walzer [52] noted that the absorption of intact protein molecules is very common in healthy children; the authors used the method of passive transfer. The permeability of the intestine for undigested proteins may increase in diarrhoea and to decline again as the recovery [53]. Gamo et al. [54] found in the serum of human bovine casein; this antigen reacted with marked 1311 rabbit gamma-globulin to the casein. The authors note that the high content of whey, casein is more typical for healthy babies who are bottle-feeding, than for adults, and it is relatively little depends on the intake of milk.
Interesting data were obtained D. P. Heiner [55] in the study of suction immunological intact food proteins in the stomach; the author made use of three techniques:
1. The reaction of precipitation allows you to define circulating food antigens. In blood serum some patients revealed the presence of one of milk proteins in the presence of antibodies to other proteins. Based on these data, the author evaluated the reaction of precipitation using Ouchterlony between sera from two different patients and found that in some cases, the lines precipitation appeared in the result of the interaction of food antigens contained in a single serum, and specific of the antibodies in the serum of another patient.
2. In some cases in rabbits caused the formation of specific antibodies to a food protein by introducing them human serum. This way is sometimes possible to detect the presence in the blood serum of people antigens to cow's milk, wheat or egg proteins.
3. Intradermal injection of healthy persons human serum containing the fixed into the skin antibodies to gliadin wheat, led to positive local skin reactions after oral administration gliadin. In addition, the oral dose gliadin (per 1 kg of weight)that cause a positive reaction in newborns was about 10 times lower than in children older than 2 years. This difference apparently indicates a significantly greater permeability of the intestinal mucosa in children of early age [55 - 58] compared with adults [54, 59]. Increased permeability especially characteristic for premature babies [11, 12]. As shown by research conducted recently, breast-feeding plays an important role in accelerating the maturation of the intestine newborn. Add free from the cells of breast milk (supernatant) taken from children lymphoid cells of the intestine has led to a significant increase in education IgA [60]. In another paper, it was shown that intestinal permeability for macromolecules in newborn rabbits are breastfeeding, was less than the animals treated milk [61].