Scar

Scar - area of dense connective tissue, formed as a result of wound healing, inflammation or necrosis. Appearance and properties of the scar depends on the characteristics of damaged tissue, the size of the wound and the nature of its healing. Soft, unobtrusive and rolling scars are in the healing of wounds primary intention (see the Wound, injury). Rough, irregular, tightly fused with the underlying tissues scars occur when the wounds with significant tissue defect (for example, burns III degree), long-term recurrent suppurative processes, the presence in the wound foreign bodies, bruises, etc., In these cases, scarring precedes the formation of loose granulation tissue (see), which, compressed and decreasing in volume, turns into poor cellular elements and vessels dense connective tissue. The positive role of scars manifests itself in isolation pathological focus from the surrounding tissues (e.g., encapsulation of a foreign body, and others) and reducing the size of a tissue defect, but scarring is accompanied by a contraction of the wound edges that may cause deformation of the violation of the functions of the authority.


Fig. 1. Tightening the scar after burn. Figure 2. Disfiguring scars of the face.

Fig. 3. Scars on the neck

Scars in the joints (Fig. 1) leads to restriction of movement (see Contracture), in the field of the meninges may be the cause of epilepsy (see). Getting into the scar of the nerve trunk causes disorders of movement and sensitivity sometimes accompanied by severe pain, scars on the face leads to cosmetic defects (Fig. 2), neck - to its curvature (Fig. 3). Scar fusion (spikes) in the abdomen can cause intestinal obstruction, the formation of a scar in the wall of hollow organs (the esophagus, rectum, urethra) leads to a narrowing of the clearance. The inferiority of scar tissue often leads to the formation of hernias of the abdominal wall, lack of blood flow and injury scars often lead to the formation of ulcers on its surface. Treatment for superficial scars is the application of heat treatments (mud, ozocerite, paraffin baths), x-ray therapy, injections extract of aloe, lidaza, hydrocortisone, massage, medical gymnastics.
Surgical treatment is intended excision of the scars, the release of scars nerves and tendons, cutting of adhesions in the abdominal cavity, removing disfiguring scars on the face (see Plastic surgery).