Salmonellosis

Salmonella group acute infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella.
Etiology. The Salmonella - different types of Salmonella. Subdivide them on pathogenic for humans (Salmonella, typhoid fever and paratyphoid A) or only for the animals, as well as pathogenic for humans and animals (Salmonella paratyphoid In, murine typhus, cholera pigs and other).
Epidemiology. Salmonella infections are common intestinal infectious diseases. There were individual cases of disease or outbreak. There are diseases in summer and autumn. Source and reservoir of infection are sick and healthy animals: cattle and small cattle, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, rodents, poultry. The source can be and people. Possible long-term carriers of Salmonella in people who have had salmonellosis. The infection is usually transmitted through contaminated food, mainly through meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, eggs. In the spread of Salmonella infections play a role and bakterionositeli working at food enterprises. Contact transmission from person to person through Salmonella is rare; possible in newborns and infants.
Pathogenesis and pathological anatomy. Manifestations of the disease are associated with the action on the body of the pathogen and its toxins. Salmonella, getting in the gastrointestinal tract that can lead to local inflammatory phenomena, and common infectious process in the further penetration of bacteria in the blood and other organs. Section detected swelling and redness of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, sometimes hemorrhage, enlarged liver and spleen, and degenerative changes in the parenchymal organs.
The clinical picture. The severity of clinical course of salmonellosis range from the lightest of cases of acute gastroenteritis or asymptomatic infection to severe typhoidal and septicemic form. The disease often starts acutely raises the body temperature. Symptoms of General intoxication and acute gastroenteritis, and disorders of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. There are the following clinical forms of salmonellosis: gastrointestinal, generalized (tifa-influenza-like and septic course of the disease), as well as hosting (without clinical signs of the disease); often there is a stratification of Salmonella infection on other diseases.
The diagnosis of Salmonella assign to the clinical and epidemiological data and the results of bacteriological tests of food debris, vomit, wash water, feces, bile, blood, and urine of patients. Also studied blood on serological reactions (agglutination and haemagglutination) with Salmonella antigens.
Treatment of patients with salmonellosis performed depending on the severity and the clinical forms of the disease. In severe disease and generalized protracted forms shown antibiotics (mainly chloramphenicol)and isotonic solution of sodium chloride, glucose solutions subcutaneously, intravenously (drip). Pour the plasma. Appoint cardiovascular drugs, vitamins. With symptoms of dehydration injected saline № 1 (see Cholera).
Usually the disease over the recovery; possible death in severe and septicemic form of the disease. Immunity in salmonellosis little studied.
Prevention. Actions in case of salmonellosis should be directed to strict veterinary-sanitary supervision of slaughter cattle. The importance of the observance of sanitary regime at cutting carcasses, preparation and storage of food products, control over the persons working at food enterprises, in order to detect Salmonella hosting.
Cm. also typhoid fever, Paratyphoid, Food intoxication.

  • Salmonella infections in children