Sanitary protection of water bodies

Sanitary protection of water bodies is a complex of legislative, organizational and sanitary-technical measures aimed at the protection of open water bodies from pollution.
The most significant sources of water pollution are domestic wastewater sanitation of settlements and sewage of industrial enterprises. Pollution of open water reservoirs threaten health and has an adverse impact on the living conditions of the population causes a big damage to fisheries and complicates the use of water bodies for industrial and other economic purposes.
Hygienic requirements for sanitary protection of water bodies is directed on creation of conditions in which the descent of wastewater does not violate the interests of normal water. Requirements to the composition and properties of water in paragraphs drinking and cultural-domestic water use is given in the "Rules of surface water protection from pollution by sewage", published in 1961, Sanitary norms are not effluents, as before, and the quality of the water reservoirs and the content of harmful substances. Currently developed and approved maximum permissible concentration for more than 100 of harmful substances entering the water bodies in the composition of industrial wastewater. Discharge into water bodies radioactive substances regulated by "Sanitary rules of work with radioactive substances and ionizing radiation sources" № 333-60.
The most effective measures for sanitary protection of water bodies are: changes of technological processes aimed at reducing wastewater discharges, replacement of toxic products harmless or less harmful, extraction and utilization of valuable substances from the wastewater, recycled water supply, in which the waste water is processed in a newly used in the technological process. In case of insufficiency of these measures needed equipment of special facilities for the treatment and disposal of wastewater (see). Around the sources used for centralized water supply, set the zone of sanitary protection (see). The decision of questions of sanitary protection of water bodies are regulated by the Fundamentals of legislation of the USSR and Union republics on health care (articles 21, 25, and others).
In preventive sanitary supervision in the field of sanitary protection of water bodies should be guided by the "Guidelines for the design of external sewage of industrial enterprises" (CH 173 - 61) and SN and PSG -6 -62 (Sewerage. Design norms"). At the current sanitary supervision (see) and control the effectiveness of treatment facilities and the correctness of their operation, is made with sanitary-surveying areas where water treatment facilities are installed items of pollution, quantity of wastewater, reset mode, the main pollutants in water bodies, conducted a survey of residents and selected the water samples for chemical, radiological, bacteriological and biological research (see Sanitary samples). On uncontaminated areas grab samples taken in the warmest month of the year and in the last month of winter. Water samples are taken systematically, in permanent observation points: above and below the production of wastewater.