Sanatorium - health care institution for treatment of patients with predominantly natural resources (climate, mineral waters, therapeutic muds and other), in combination with diet therapy, physical therapy and physiotherapy subject to a certain mode of treatment and rest.
The sanatorium are organized as in resorts, and out of them in areas with favorable climate, landscape and sanitation.
During the years of Soviet power created a wide network of health resorts (see Resorts). Vouchers are provided mostly free of charge or at a significant discount at the expense of the social insurance.
Collective farms and sanatoriums were built and are maintained at the expense of the collective farms.
Departmental subordination sanatorium - see Resorts.
There are sanatoriums for adults, children and adolescents, the sanatorium for parents with children.
Medical profession (specialization) of the Spa sanatoriums depends on medical factors of the resort and set for him a medical indication. Specialization non-resort (local) health centers is established depending on local conditions. In local sanatoria send patients after checkout clinics and hospitals for follow-up care and in those cases, when a trip to distant resorts and contrasting climatic conditions can have a detrimental effect on the General condition of the patient. At a direction of patients in the sanatorium are guided by the rules and conditions established by the Ministry of health of the USSR.
The following types of specialized sanatorium: for patients (adults) active forms of tuberculosis, lung, bone tuberculosis, tuberculosis of the kidneys and urinary tract, tuberculosis of the eye, diseases of the circulatory, digestive, metabolic and endocrine system diseases, movement organs, nervous system, respiratory organs of not tubercular character, kidneys and urinary tract, gynaecological and skin diseases. The sanatorium can be peer (for patients with similar diseases) and multi - with two and more specialized sections.
Specialization sanatorium for children and adolescents into account the peculiarities of diseases in childhood. In sanatoriums widely used climatotherapy (see), balneotherapy (see), mud (see) in combination with therapeutic physical training (see) and medical nutrition (see). Medical therapy in health centers used in a limited manner. Depending on the medical profile of sanatorium equipped with diagnostic and treatment facilities: x-ray, ECG, physical therapy, physical therapy and other treatments, clinical and biochemical laboratories. On the sanatorium resorts patients can use the General resort Spa facilities, mud baths, beaches, Aero tanning beds, swimming pools, sports facilities , etc. are of Great importance in the sanatoriums is given to cultural-mass, sanitary-educational work, and in health resorts for children and teenagers and educational. The sanatorium mode provides the most favorable conditions for treatment and rest. In the sanatorium practice, depending on the condition of the patient and the severity of the disease apply two kinds individual mode: sparing and training. By strengthening the forces of the patient, the mode changes; reduced number of limitations and, as a rule, by the end of the treatment regime becomes more active.
The duties ward nurses of the sanatorium there is the execution of the assignments of the attending physician and the control over observance of the patients of the sanatorium mode. In every sanatorium is set to the position of senior nurses. The position of the ward nurses installed from the calculation: in the sanatorium up to 75 beds - 4,5 positions for every 50 patients over 75 added 1 position ward nurses. At presence in sanatorium branch for more severe patients additionally set 1 position nurses for every 40 beds. Indications and contraindications to sanatorium treatment - see Resorts.