Sanitary examination

Sanitary examination is made by the bodies and agencies of sanitary-epidemiological service of the ministries of health of the USSR and Union republics.
The main task of the state sanitary supervision in the USSR - control for carrying out activities aimed at the eradication and prevention of environmental pollution (water reservoirs, soil and air) hazardous industrial emissions, and domestic waste; improvement of working conditions and life of the population, and also control over implementation of measures for prevention of diseases.
Sanitary authorities [of sanitary-epidemiological control of the ministries of health, sanitary epidemiological station (see)] conduct sanitary expertise and provide conclusions: the project planning, construction and improvement of settlements; on draft regional plan and perspective plans of placing of industry; design standards and the projects of industrial, communal, hydro-engineering, construction engineering, transport and other types of construction; projects of land allocation for all types of construction and on determination of the places of water withdrawal and descent wastewater; for projects of reconstruction, expansion, modification of the profile and the technology of production of industrial enterprises; on the projects of the state standards and technical conditions for new types of raw materials, drinking water, food and industrial products subject to introduction into production; on projects and constructions of new types of technological equipment and working tools designed for serial production.
The sanitary and epidemiological service give the obligatory certificate of compliance with the sanitary requirements of commissioned residential buildings, civil, cultural-domestic buildings, enterprises of industry, transport, communication, agriculture, hydraulic engineering and public utilities, catering, trade, food industry, medical institutions and other structures.
Without positive conclusion of the sanitary supervision cannot be approved projects of construction and design standards. Industries that release into the atmosphere of harmful substances, can be implemented only if provided with treatment of emissions and the amount of harmful substances and dust in the atmosphere does not exceed the accepted norms. Sanitary authorities (see) examine when choosing a water source, the construction of water supply and other water structures, the development of measures for water protection from pollution, etc. In the implementation of sanitary expertise as needed can be sampled for laboratory hygiene studies. Research methods must meet the requirements of state standards and technical conditions and instructions, approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR.
If necessary, the sanitary and epidemiological services may be involved in the examination of scientific-research institutions and laboratories.
Hygienic assessment is given on the set of materials prepared on the basis of laboratory tests, sanitary surveys, relevant documentation with applicable regulations, sanitary regulations, guidelines and instructions.
Special attention deserves examination of food products, which is produced by the health authorities in the procedure of routine control, special sanitary and epidemiological reasons (food poisonings, infectious diseases and so on), as well as in the arbitration procedure. On the basis of data of sanitary examination bodies of sanitary supervision have the right to adjudicate on the destruction, processing or other use of food found unfit.
The development of the chemical industry, the use of achievements of chemistry in the economy, introduction of synthetic materials in the food industry and everyday life further expand the volume of sanitary examination. One of the tasks of primary importance is the determination of the resistance of synthetic materials to the effects in contact with them food. These materials must not give into the food and water components, harmful to humans. For sanitary-hygienic assessment should be delivered samples or models of products with the indication of a synthetic material they are made, including a list of their constituent chemicals. It was the view of the results of the preliminary research conducted industrial or research laboratories agencies. In those cases, when in the formula includes little-known chemical and no approved methods of research, it is necessary to require that the departmental laboratories and institutes presented the description of a technique of definition of the most important ingredients. If the products are made of synthetic materials have a strong smell, samples are considered unsuitable for use in the food industry or for the manufacture of utensils and containers for food use, and storage of water. In the absence poor organoleptic properties of the samples are subjected to further study.
If sanitary-epidemiological study of samples give satisfactory results, it is reasonable to recommend further testing of materials in conditions of experimental operation, after expiry of which the results of tests are presented for examination to the superior bodies of the state sanitary inspection. Only then permission is given for the manufacture of the tested products.
In connection with a wide chemicalization of agriculture, the sanitary supervision should pay particular attention to the expertise of agricultural food products (grain, vegetables, fruits) with the definition in them of residual quantities of pesticides.
Cm. Sanitary legislation.