Sanitary protection of water supply sources

To protect water sources, used for water supply, around them, create zones of sanitary protection (Fig. 18). The zone of sanitary protection should consist of three zones.

the scheme of protective zones of water
Fig. 18. The scheme of protective zones of water.

1. Area of first zone (strict regime) cover a source at the intake of the water and the adjacent plot, on which are placed all head works of the water supply system.
This territory is protected and guarded. It is prohibited residence of people and construction, not related to wastewater treatment plants. The area is improving, it provides the order, to prevent accidental or deliberate pollution of water. For artesian wells, this area is 30-50 m
2. Zone of the second zone (restrictions). In the area of industrial, civil, agricultural, construction or completely prohibited or permitted provided fence supply from the adverse effects.
Thus, restricting the flow of wastewater, mass bathing, fishing. If the water source is the underground water, it is prohibited in this zone the device quarries, ratih Yam, deep foundations.
The length of this zone depends on the strength of self-purification of the reservoir capacity of rivers and is set for major rivers of 20-30 km for medium - from 30 to 60 km, and for small rivers covers even the area of the basin. This zone should be extended to several hundred meters below the water intake for protection from pollution of the places of water withdrawal in the event of overpressure or reverse currents (surge winds). For underground springs area restrictions set within 250-150 m
3. The area of the third zone (observation). In this zone is being closely monitored for infectious morbidity of the population, are taken urgent measures to eliminate the arisen centers of infectious diseases.
Currently, thanks to effective anti-epidemic work on the whole territory of the USSR the selection of the third belt has lost its practical value.
The establishment of zones of sanitary protection of Water epidemics related to contamination of source water supply, now it is not observed.