Sanitary-hygienic researches

Sanitation analysis - a set of methods that are used in hygiene order to study the composition of air, water, food, soil and other environmental objects. These studies also investigate the influence of environmental factors on the human organism. Sanitary-hygienic researches allow to develop preventive measures, directed to health protection and the improvement of living conditions of the population, and to establish hygienic standards.
The most simple method of sanitary-hygienic researches is sanitary and descriptive. However, he does not give a complete idea about the subject. Chemical, radiochemical and radiometric methods give the opportunity to identify harmful substances in various environmental objects. To establish such important health parameters as temperature, humidity, pressure and movement of air, noise, vibration, ultraviolet radiation, integrated flow of radiant energy, air ionization, the thermal conductivity of various materials, illumination of surfaces, caloric content of food products and other widely applied physical research methods.
In the evaluation of food, drinking water are of great importance organoleptic research methods (see Tasting).
Of great importance in sanitary-hygienic research has bacteriological testing (see) drinking water and food, as well as soil, household items, clothing and equipment for the food industry. Bacteriological tests are widely used during the examination of the personnel of the enterprises of the food industry and catering for carriage of pathogenic bacteria. Samples for bacteriological analysis should be selected in compliance with the rules regarding sterility (see Sanitary samples).
Helminthological research methods (see) are used in sanitary-hygienic examination of water, soil, vegetables, and also at the control of meat on trichinosis and measles. When sanitation and public catering enterprises it is important to check on personal health books, not detected by any of workers suffering from worms, and if found, whether the treatment is carried out, whether made the comparative analysis after treatment.
Of biological methods in the hygiene research bioassay method is used to determine the toxicity of harmful impurities, presence of toxins and other harmful substances.
Statistical methods are used in the hygiene research in studying of influence of factors of an environment on health of the population.
To determine the effect of various environmental factors on the function and physiological responses of the human body and animals are widely used physiological and biochemical methods of research. These methods are also used to justify the maximum permissible concentrations of harmful substances in atmospheric air, water reservoirs, the air of industrial premises, food products. In addition, biochemical techniques are used in the definitions of the biological value of food and ready meals.