Sanitary requirements to the construction and operation of public catering enterprises

The system of public catering in the USSR is of special importance for the satisfaction of material and cultural needs of the population and to free women from the household. This explains the great attention that the party and government attach to the development of public catering.
In the Program of the CPSU adopted at the XXII Congress, special attention is paid to expansion of the network of public catering enterprises, including dining rooms at the enterprises, institutions, schools, large homes.
Sanitary and hygienic requirements to the enterprises of public catering, as set out in Sanitary rules for public catering enterprises.
Land for development of the catering Department shall be of adequate size and to be removed from enterprises, hazardous sanitary condition. The basic premise should be positioned at a distance not less than 25 m from septic tanks, containers and other places of pollution. Industrial premises should be oriented to the North and dining rooms - South.
The interior layout of the premises of the nutrition unit should provide production connection of separate rooms to ensure flow of the process. The products are supplied for processing, must proceed from one Department to the other, without becoming soiled. how it clean
Public catering enterprises consist of the following groups of premises: industrial premises (meat and fish Department, the vegetable shop, kitchen, cold workshop, handout, bread slicer, washing for cooking and dining utensils); rooms for visitors service (dining room, a snack bar, lobby, closet, washing room and others); warehousing and storage space for dry products, vegetables, refrigerating chambers for perishable products; administrative-household premises (rooms staff, shower, closet).
Dining rooms to accommodate a large number of visitors and be easy to clean. Impeccable purity of walls, floors, curtains, cookware should facilitate the emergence of an appetite for the visitors. Furniture should be easy to clean, and tables to have a health cover (plastic, oilcloth, a bright colour). In production areas and warehouses provides for separate storage of different products in the appropriate temperature conditions for the prevention of damage, contamination and infection.
For primary processing of meat, fish, vegetables should be separate workshops. Otherwise, the infection of finished products and the occurrence of food poisoning, since the surface of meat and vegetables is contaminated with microorganisms, including pathogenic.
In billet premises must have a slope of floors to the drains. The walls to the height of 1.6-1.8 m from the floor must be covered by tiles or painted with oil paint. Tables in billet should be made from a marble crumb or coated galvanized iron with soldered joints. Table tops can be made from tightly downed boards nevolnoj breed.
One of the main premises of the kitchen is the kitchen, which occupies a Central position between the billet room and dining room. Kitchen area should be spacious, with good natural and artificial lighting, adequate exhaust ventilation over the stove for removal of steam, gases. The stove is located in the center, allowing to approach it from all sides. The walls are tables covered with galvanized iron (or from a marble crumb), separate raw and cooked foods. Back boards, knives, grinder should also be separate raw and cooked products to be labeled.
The air temperature in the kitchen in all seasons of the year high, so the semi-there cannot be stored for a long time, and all ready meals to the hand must be on a hot stove.
Finished products are issued or directly from the kitchen, through a special window or through handout room, equipped with a steam tables to maintain the required temperature of ready meals.
At distribution of food must be applied fork, spatula, trays, not to shift portions hands.
In each kitchen provides for two wash - for dining and cooking utensils.
It is established, that is not well washed dishes can be a source of infectious diseases. Reliable method of disinfection of dishes is handling it with water at a temperature below 80 degrees.
When cleaning and washing dishes distinguish the following stages: mechanical removal of food; primary sink in the first bath in water at a temperature of 45-50 degrees; secondary washing dishes in the second bath same temperature; disinfection in water at a temperature of 80 degrees in the third bath.
At primary sink for better removal of fat in the water, add the mustard. After washing the dishes dry on lattices. In infectious and children's wards in hospitals washed dishes sterilized by boiling.
Currently, large kitchen washing using a mechanical sinks of different types. The great value has a systematic nurse-but-bacteriological quality control dishes, carried out by the sanitary-epidemiological stations.
The floors in the kitchen, cutting, washing must be lined with ceramic floor tiles. In all production and store rooms daily washing floors, and General cleaning do once a week.
After all tables, boards, machine clean and wash with hot water.