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Sanitary losses of troops

Sanitary losses of troops - loss armed forces during the war at the expense of victims of enemy weapons, as well as patients hospitalized in health facilities (medical institution) for a period of more than a day. Sanitary losses should be distinguished from the total losses of troops, which include, in addition to health, the so-called deadweight loss (killed, died of wounds before entering the clinics, the missing and captured). Usually San. loss (wounded) significantly exceed the deadweight loss (killed). In the first world war, this ratio was approximately 4:1, during the second world war it has changed towards growth of the deadweight loss and amounted to approximately 3:1. There is reason to believe that the use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction will lead to further the relative growth of the deadweight loss.
Sanitary losses troops divided into combat and non-combat. To combat include losses from enemy weapons (trauma, burns, lesions of ionizing radiation, S). To combat sanitary and losses also include and loss frostbitten because of frostbite in the army are most closely related to the combat environment. Non-combat sanitary losses troops include loss of patients, the disease which arose out of touch with the weapon used by the enemy, as well as losses at the expense of victims of non-combat injuries. This division is quite relative, as the emergence of many diseases associated with combat situation (long forced cooling, fatigue and etc.).
Sanitary losses troops classify and other characteristics. In evacuation and transportation against the wounded and sick divided into walking and stretcher, and sitting and lying, which is essential when deciding whether sanitary transport. Share sanitary losses troops also to the loss of heavy and lehmannii. Such a differentiation is of great significance in determining the timing of treatment, and therefore the place where you want to evacuate the wounded and the sick. Special group of nontransportable the wounded and sick. There are retransferability absolute impossibility of transportation of any transport vehicles) and relative, in which evacuation is possible only certain, most environmentally friendly mode of transport.
The structure of sanitary losses troops depends mainly on species used by enemy weapons. On the modern armies of the imperialist countries have a cold, fire, nuclear and chemical weapons. Each of these species peculiar to a specific effect on the organism, which determines the extraordinary variety of lesions in modern warfare.
The use of bladed weapons departs in the field of history. Since the 19th century the bulk of the fighting sanitary losses troops was the loss of victims of firearms. The growth of equipping armies automatic, quick-firing guns and artillery caused the aggravation of gunshot wounds. Increased number of multiple injuries. Shrapnel wounds are usually characterized by a greater area of tissue damage in comparison with the bullet, occur more and more often experience complications (see the Wound, injury). Localization of injuries in the last war was more or less stable. So, in the Great Patriotic war frequency of head wounds ranged against all injuries within 7-13%, neck - 0,5-1,5%, breast - 7 -12%, belly - 1,9-5%, pelvis, lumbar area and buttocks - 5-7,7%, spine- 0,3-1,5%, upper limb - 29-45%, lower limb - 30-40%. The observed constancy depends first and foremost on the ratio value of the surfaces of different areas of the human body. However, the localization of the injuries affect other reasons, including the nature of warfare, a position that he held the victim at the moment of injury, etc. for example, in defence, when the troops are in the trenches, often affects the upper body, in the attack left half of the body, as the attacker, usually progresses half-turned to the enemy, bringing his left hand with the machine (rifle) forward.
Exploding shells, mines, missiles and air bombs are accompanied by the occurrence of a shock - wave of the second striking factor these destructive means. Characteristic of shock wave type of lesion is contusion (see). During the Great Patriotic war the number of wounded was small and was about 2,5-5% of the total number affected. However, in the war with the use opponent of nuclear weapons is possible to expect a considerable growth of this type of lesions.