Alkali

Alkali is well-soluble in water Foundation. In clinical and sanitary-hygienic laboratories widely use the following alkali: caustic ammonium solution of ammonia in water (see Ammonia), caustic soda (see), sodium hydroxide (see).
Occupational hazards in the production of alkalis. The action of alkalis on the body is primarily due to their ability to absorb water from the tissues and to dissolve the tissue proteins with the formation of alkaline albuminates when hit solutions or alkali dust on the skin and mucous membranes. Dangerous from alkali in the eye, because it also affects not only the surface tissues (cornea), but deeper. The outcome can be blindness.
The working contact with alkalis possible when performing such operations, crushing and transportation of solid alkali, loading vehicles and discharging of them, packing of the finished product, cleaning and repair of equipment, etc.
If you regularly work with alkalis possible chronic skin swelling and softening of the skin, ulcers, eczema. Inhalation of alkali in the form of dust or mist causes irritation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
Prevention: mechanization of processes of crushing and sealing machines, equipment ventilated shelters over the places of possible allocation bases, use of protective clothing, rubber gloves, glasses, respirators etc., the Maximum allowable concentration of aerosol alkali in the air of industrial premises in terms of caustic soda - 0.5 mg/m3.
First aid: abundant washing the affected parts of the body of water, which in the working premises must be installed special hydrants, then lotions from 5% solution of acetic acid, hydrochloric or citric acid. At hit of alkali with eyes - prolonged washing with water jet, then drops 2% solution novokaina or 0.5% solution dikaina.
Cm. Burns (chemical), Poisoning (alkalis).

Alkali (caustic alkalis) is well-soluble in water Foundation. In practice, widely used following alkali: sodium hydroxide (caustic soda, caustic soda; NaOH), potassium hydroxide (caustic potash, caustic potash; KOHN), hydroxide barium [hydroxide barium; BA(OH)2], ammonium hydroxide (caustic ammonia, ammonia, volatile alkali; NH4OH).
Pure alkali are solid, well-soluble in water. In aqueous solutions of alkali almost completely disintegrate into ions, resulting belong to a strong bases. Only hydroxide ammonium, which is in a free state is not received and exists only in solutions, a weak basis; it is formed upon the dissolution of ammonia in water.
Aqueous solutions of alkalis have all the intrinsic properties of solutions of the grounds. The table shows the correlation between the density, interest and molar concentration of water solutions of alkalis, most widely used in biochemical, sanitary and clinical laboratories.
Cm. also, Acids and bases.
Occupational hazards in the production of alkalis. The action of alkalis on the body due to the ability to take water from the tissues and destroy proteins, forming alkaline albuminates and omelet fats. Under the action of alkali are formed on the skin soft, easily removable scabs, not interfering penetration of alkali into the deeper layers of tissue.
In constant contact with alkali even moderate concentrations of chronic damage to the skin, painful sores and limited dermatitis. Eczema are observed less frequently. The reason, apparently, is the combined influence of alkalis and other harmful factors, as defatting of the skin and damage to the epidermis violates the barrier function of the skin, facilitating the penetration of the infection and the impact of other (physical and chemical) factors.
Under the influence of alkali nails become thinner, more brittle, covered with longitudinal grooves, turning into the cracks. With long-term effects of alkali these changes may be persistent.
Getting even small amounts of alkali into the eyes is particularly dangerous because it causes damage not only the mucous and Horny shells, but the deeper it environments. Due to possible loss of vision. The action of alkalis on the respiratory system irritating the mucous membranes of varying severity.
Severe poisoning with stomach burn and subsequent scarring, causing obstruction of the esophagus, are observed in case of accidental ingestion of concentrated solutions of alkalis.
The working contact with alkalis possible for crushing and transportation of solid bases in the process of loading them into the devices for preparation of solutions, when filtering solutions, melting of alkali, especially in the production of metallic sodium and potassium, unloading and packaging of finished products in bulk, liquids and molten form (on the production of caustic alkalis and alkaline metals). Especially dangerous operation, cleaning and repair of equipment.
The concentration of alkaline substances in the air of industrial premises is different.
Maximum permissible concentration of alkaline aerosol in terms of caustic soda - 0.5 mg/m3.
First aid in case of poisoning alkali - see Poisoning, Antidotes.
Prevention. In order to prevent occupational poisoning alkali implies a continuous, sealed the production process, with the exception of manual operations, mechanization of labour-intensive processes. Of great importance for the improvement of working conditions is a balanced ventilation with shelter equipment and device suction at the places of possible emission of dust and gases.
Workers should be provided with protective clothing, rubber gloves and glasses in leather frame. It is advisable to use respirators or cotton-gauze dressing. Exposed parts of the body smeared with vaseline or special pastes. Alkaline dust after work, wash oil, then rinsing the skin with warm water. Clothing and underwear when work is subjected to cleaning and washing. In the working premises set special eye hydrants with lever faucet for a fast start-up water hydrants with a flexible hose is intended for washing the affected parts of the body, and also a sink with hot and cold water for washing hands.
In case of contact with eyes quicklime them immediately wash out and process the mucous membrane of 15% solution of the neutral tartaric ammonium. With a sharp pain impose a drop of 2% solution novokaina with adrenaline.
When you burn quicklime should immediately remove the vegetable or mineral oil traces of lime, and then impose lotions from 5% solution of citric, tartaric, acetic acid or hydrochloric acid.
Workers should be informed about the basic safety rules. At work place, you should have a first aid kit with a set of urgent medical aid.
In each shift should be people who know how to provide first aid.