School

The basic type of the school - secondary labour Polytechnic school with an enrolment of approximately 400 to 1200. In rural areas - primary school to the number of students 40-80 and eight-year school with a number of students from 200 to 320.
For successful training of students and provide them with good conditions of stay in school land for the school building, school building itself, its layout, equipment and maintenance should contribute to the adaptation of developing organism student to numerous and moreover in a new environment. It provides evidence based hygienic standards that are members of the relevant legislation governing the construction and landscaping of the school building.
The main document regulating hygienic requirements, are currently the construction norms and rules (SNiP P-L, 4-62 "Comprehensive schools and boarding schools") and in addition, "the design Assignment of buildings of secondary schools with extended day for the part of students". (Approved by the State Committee for civil engineering and architecture at Gosstroy of the USSR of 25 January 1968)
The peculiarity of the modern school building is that it consists of five sections-blocks (academic, industrial, sports, cultural and administrative), separated from each other and at the same time interrelated. This helps to ensure basic hygiene principles of the plan: 1) independently positioned premises for primary school children in need due to age characteristics (high anxiety and rapid exhaustion of the nervous system, is a great need for physical activity, the higher the incidence of infectious) much milder in comparison with pupils of the senior classes; 2) the possibility of unilaterally or mixed construction corridor to provide optimum conditions of light and air regime in mainstream classrooms and corridors for rest of students; 3) to isolate the premises (workshops, gym and Assembly hall), in which there are high levels of noise (average of 80-90 dB), adverse impact on the threshold, hearing sensitivity and the overall health of students.
In the school building are envisaged: classrooms for students of grades 1-4 size of 50 m2 (1.25 m2 per student), ten special training rooms the size 60-66 m2, a combined workshop for boys 4-8 classes for processing metal, wood and other types of work with the tool; Cabinet servicing activities for girls 4-8 classes, gym, Assembly hall, dining room, medical room and other administrative premises. The occupancy of 1-8 classes - 40 students and 9-10 grades -35 students.
Provides a separate land plot from 0.5 to 3.0 ha depending on the number of students in the school, which consists of four areas (training and research, sports, leisure and business), widely planted (40 - 50% of the total area of the plot).
Active recreation at the site relatively quickly restores reduced under the influence of the training sessions performance of the students.
Medical service provides students the school doctor and nurse or paramedic. It covers: 1) the medical-preventive help to children (in-depth examinations, medical examinations, dynamic monitoring of the health and vaccination); 2) daily control over the sanitary condition of the school and hygienic conditions (mode, nutrition, physical education classes, organization of work, leisure, and others) and 3) constant propaganda San. knowledge to children, teachers, service personnel.

School. Secondary employment Polytechnic school in the USSR equips students a solid knowledge, and provides them with Communist consciousness and prepares young people to choice of profession. The school aims to realize the aesthetic education of students, improve health and promote physical development.
Schooling starts at the age of 7 and is divided into three stages: 1-3rd classes - primary education; 4-8 th classes - incomplete secondary, 9-10 grades - secondary education. In the USSR the 8-year education is compulsory. In accordance with the Program of the CPSU in the near future will become a mandatory 10-year education.
The vast majority are 8-year school. Primary schools have been preserved only in rural areas with low population densities.
In addition to the school type, there are special schools for children with deviations in health (visually impaired, hearing impaired, mentally retarded, and so on), forest schools (see), as well as the so-called profiled schools, i.e. schools with in-depth theoretical and practical study in 9th and 10th grades of some subjects (e.g. mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, Humanities, etc.,). There are also schools with teaching some subjects in a foreign language.
For children who are family for whatever reason can not provide a proper education, created boarding schools. Children are in them on full state support available only on Sundays and public holidays and vacations on request are returned to their families. Also established schools with extended day in which children spend all day, eat, walk, under the supervision of teachers prepare lessons and return home after the arrival of their parents from work.
Regardless of total capacity of the school limit class capacity is 40 people in 1-8 grades and 35 in 9th and 10th grades.
School continue from 1 September to 30 may. 5-6-th and 9 th grade in June is manufacturing practice, 8th and 10th grade exams. During the school year three times declared holidays: autumn (5-9 November), winter (December 30 - January 10), spring (March 24-31). Is not more than 24 lessons per week for 1-4 grades, 30 lessons for the 5-7th, 31 - 8-s, not more than 32 compulsory lessons for 9 - 10-Kh. From the 7th through 10th grade students on the choice attend optional classes in the amount of not more than 2 hours a week in 7-8 grades and 4 hours a week - in the 9-10th grades.
Lesson lasts 45 minutes In the first class are allowed to cut the length of the lesson, up to 35 minutes Breaks between lessons (changes) continue for 10 minutes, one large (between 2nd and 3rd lessons) - 30 minutes is Allowed to replace the 30-minute change two variables in 20 minutes
During the school day the functional state of the Central nervous system students and therefore their performance change. The status of schoolchildren improved from the 1st lesson to the 2nd best is 2-3 lessons; later it decreased in the result of the coming of fatigue; children - after the 3rd and the elderly - after the 4th lesson. 6th lessons are usually with reduced working capacity. The best way of preventing fatigue of students serves as a proper construction of the school day: lessons requiring immobility, should be replaced lessons with increased physical activity, lessons with the predominant strain on the second signal system - lessons with primary use the first signal system.
For recovery and rest are important changes. In a time of change it is necessary to stimulate high physical activity of pupils. It is best to change in any weather outdoors.
Schools must have a special building, school, and a land plot on the basis of 40-50 mg per 1 student. On the school site there are the following areas: sports (the site for sport games, gymnastics, athletics); training and research (garden, vegetable garden, Zoological, meteorological site, classes in the open air); recreation area (area for outdoor games and for a quiet holiday) and the economic court.
The premises of the school: training (classroom, classrooms and laboratories, training workshops and gym), secondary (recreational halls and corridors, dining or a snack bar, lobby with wardrobes, library, Komsomol and pioneer of the room, hall, shower room, washrooms, toilets) and service (the Director's office, teachers ' room, an office, a doctor's office).
Properly planned school building is divided into separate blocks for the students of Junior and senior classes, including the necessary training and auxiliary buildings, with separate entrances and wardrobes, but easily connected with the premises of the school of destination.
The main training room - classroom. The area of class - not less than 50 m2 - allows you to place 40 pupils with removing them from the chalkboard at least 2 m and 8 m and not more than 6 m from light-carrier wall.
Classrooms for lessons in history, geography, literature, foreign language should have a minimum area of 50 m2.


Learning labs for classes of physics, chemistry, biology are planned from the calculation of 1.65-1.75 m2 per student, i.e. a total of about 70 m2. Joining them laboratory room the size of 15-20 m2. Training workshops are designed for simultaneous operation of 20 people, must have a minimum area of 66 m2. The recreational area of the premises is calculated at the rate of 0.6 m2 per student.
In boarding schools, in addition to the listed facilities, provided bedrooms 4 m'2 on each pupil and a games room is based 0,8-1,5 m3 per student. In the schools of extended day required also a games room, preferably adjacent classrooms.
Each student is required depending on the age of 12-20 m3 of air per hour. As the size of the classroom to provide students just one small part of this volume, rational system of ventilation. In addition to various ventilation systems (see), the important role played room ventilation. The correct device transoms allows to ventilate the classes in any season and in the presence of the disciples, without cooling.
Optimum air temperature in class 17-20 degrees. Natural light (see) must be uniform and provide daylight factor of not less than 1.5% (preferably 2,0%). This can be achieved to a sufficient area of the aperture (the light factor of at least 1 : 4), absence before them buildings that block the light, and sufficient reflective surfaces of walls and furniture. The best illumination is achieved mainly natural light to the left of the student and the illumination from above or to the right. When Windows orientation class South large surface often leads to overheating, so it is necessary to construct a shading device.
Artificial lighting should be evenly dispersed. According to relevant standards illumination class adopted at
incandescent lamps at least 150 Lux, with fluorescent lighting - not less than 300 Lux.
School furniture should provide the correct posture, prevent fatigue caused by prolonged sitting. On design and size it should meet the growth and body proportions of students of different age. Until recently, the most popular of the schools had a misspelling (see). Now many schools are equipped with tables and chairs. It is proved that the furniture of the same size can benefit children, characterized by growth of no more than on 10 see Why schools need furniture several sizes (rooms): from № 6 for the children of growth 110-119 cm to 12 students the growth of 170 sm and above. Each class is usually necessary furniture in three sizes. School furniture should be simple, relatively lightweight and durable. Seats shall provide students with sufficient space of support; tables should be large enough. It is desirable that the lid of the Desk can give various provisions talic when you practice reading and writing and horizontal when doing manual labor, biology, etc., boards should have a smooth matte surface. The best material for them is linoleum. Recommended blackboards green. They absorb less light than black, and create the best conditions of visibility written.
Scientific substantiation of hygienic organization of educational process at school, construction and equipment of school buildings is developing a special section of hygiene - hygiene of children and adolescents (formerly school hygiene).