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Changes in metabolism

When alcoholism broken all kinds of metabolism, but the overall picture in the dynamics corresponds to the deepening toxic defeat of the body.
In patients detected violations of the normal path of glucose oxidation, is difficult due to its utilization of brain tissue. At the same time it is known that the brain requires much energy, under normal conditions 50% of energy needs are supplied by carbohydrates, and approximately 40% from fat. However, in alcoholism, reduce the need for traditional nutrient compounds. As an energy source is alcohol: 1 g of alcohol is equivalent to release 30 j, or 7.1 kcal. The calculations show that when entering day 3 grams of alcohol per 1 kg of body weight of the body's energy needs can be met by 2/3 (Musil, 1985).
Violation of protein metabolism, as, however, and other types of exchange with alcoholism are associated with toxic effects of alcohol and other factors, first of all, inadequate nutrition of patients. The severity of pathology protein metabolism increasing in the course of the disease, but already in the early stages in patients with marked the dysproteinemia (abnormal protein fractions of blood). Often marked hypoproteinemia (reduction of protein content) . This is not surprising, since it is the damaging effect of alcohol on the processes of protein synthesis. Meanwhile, the average time half-life of proteins whole body is approximately 3 weeks, i.e. proteins of an organism is intensively updated. It is very important to the body's supply of indispensable amino acids, and the nature of the daily nutrition of patients with alcohol prevents this. Protein metabolism particularly important for brain function. In the cells of the human brain has about H proteins (Gerstein, 1983), and for days neuron produces 20 times more protein than the number of which it consists. Violation of the synthesis of protein in neurons in alcoholism to the broadest possible effect on the Central nervous system, in particular it may become the basis of violation of the processes of memory, reduction of the level of intelligence and so on
However, alcohol is called hepatotropic poison: liver damage in alcoholism is observed in all patients. Amazed and most important for the body hepatic proteins-enzymes. And liver cells (hepatocytes) how would commit suicide.
As already mentioned, the accumulated acetaldehyde injures and kills synthesized his hepatocytes. Meanwhile, in each liver cell contains several thousands of enzymes, with the defeat of the hepatocyte their number in plasma may increase or decrease. It is on this change "enzyme" spectrum of blood proteins based diagnosis of liver disease.
There are shifts and nitrogen metabolism. Already after a single alcoholic intoxication violated deamination and can accumulate very toxic to brain ammonia. These processes progressing in alcoholism. Residual nitrogen in the blood of patients with alcoholism is registered at the upper limit of normal.
Changes in fat metabolism in alcoholism is most expressed. The main feature is the increased formation of fat.
As mentioned above, is formed excess restored nicotinyldihydrocodeine the oxidation of alcohol, and he goes to the synthesis of fatty acids and steroids. Excessive lipogenesis is formed and due to the increased production of glitzerofosfata from which further raises triacylglycerides. Inhibited oxidation of fatty acids, they esterificados with the formation of triglycerides.
In addition, chronic alcohol intake, an increasing number of structures endoplasmic reticulum, which is associated with the connection MEAS to utilization of ethanol. But this leads to the acceleration of the synthesis of cholesterol and its esterification.