Agricultural production unites as the leading sectors of crop production (farming, horticulture, viticulture, and others) and livestock (cattle, pig, horse breeding, and so on). In structure of agriculture in the form of special industries are forestry and primary processing of flax, cotton, wool and other products of agricultural production. In addition, for repair of a large Park and a variety of agricultural machinery in collective farms and state farms, there are repair shops.
Unlike industrial production, agriculture has features that define the nature of the working conditions of agricultural workers. The main ones include: the seasonality of work, preimuschestvenno work outdoors, relatively frequent change of work operations, used in agriculture chemicals (see agricultural Pesticides, fertilizers), as well as the remoteness of the locations of works from the permanent residence of workers.
By the main industrial groups, agricultural workers are tractor and precipice, combiners and shturvalnaya workers operating machines (drummer and assistant, these sheaves, athebaldt), producers (milkmaids, swinarski, shepherds and others), workers repair shops and auxiliary workers.
Working conditions tractor characterized by unfavourable climate in the cabin, dust (see Dustand pollution with exhaust gases (see), the noise impact (see) and vibration (see). Depending on the seasonal fluctuations of the air temperature inside the tractor cab With-80 exceeds the outer 2 -10 degrees. The dust content of the air in the respiratory area of tractor when plowing, cultivation and harrowing the soil reaches 12-340 mg/m3, and at sowing 7 - mg/m3. In the exhaust gases concentration of carbon monoxide exceed hygienic standards in 2-3 times. The volume of noise on tractors of various grades is 77 -106 dB, which can u starovynnyh tractor to damage of the auditory nerve (neuritis). The improvement of labor conditions tractor must go in the ways of improvement of the cab structure: its suspension damper, installation on the exhaust pipe, muffler, soundproofing cabins, its equipment heating and ventilation system with supply of purified air in the working area of the driver.
The work of priamikov on the harrows, rollers, planters and other mechanisms involved long walk on the ploughed soil and proceeds in conditions of seasonal climate fluctuations and dust. The dust is mostly middle with a content of up to 50% silica. In the respiratory area of precipice found exhaust gases from the working tractors and dust from mineral fertilizers and toxic chemicals. In these cases, appropriate use of personal protective equipment (respirators).
The combiners and shturvalnaya running on different brands combine harvesters of grain, sugar beet, cotton and other), are exposed to significant doses of radiant heat (radiation and heat from radiators cars), noise and vibration, and toxic substances (dust and exhaust gases). In the dust generated during cultivation, harvesting and primary processing of cotton, containing microorganisms and mold fungi that cause diseases mucous membranes (conjunctivitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma) and skin (piodermia, folliculitis). The prevention of these diseases is hygienic rationalization of structures of cabins and the use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment.
Workers operating machines, often work in conditions of high dust content in the air (from 4 to 788 mg/m3), the high temperature and insolation. To reduce the dust emission powerful threshing set exhausters for cleaning straw and other waste. Recommended personal protective equipment (goggles, respirators).
Working conditions during the harvesting and primary processing of flax depend on the degree of mechanization of work and meteorological conditions. Primary processing of flax on the collective flax points, equipped lomaloma, scutching and kudeleprigotovitelnyh machines or units santalova, accompanied by the release of significant quantities of dust (3 to 4 g/m3) and usually occurs at low temperatures. Careful shelter technological equipment for primary processing of flax with the installation of ventilation hoods (type A. A. Satanovsky) significantly reduce the dust content of air.
Effective preventive tool for work with mineral fertilizers and other chemicals in agriculture is the strict observance of personal hygiene rules and mandatory use of protective clothing and individual protective equipment (goggles, respirators, protective ointments and pastes).
Conditions of work in various branches of animal husbandry are characterized by specific features, linked with the ability of infectious diseases (brucellosis, foot and mouth disease, tularemia, anthrax, SAP, helminthiasis and others). During the care of animals, milking them, cleaning from manure etc., working may be exposed to gas release (ammonia, hydrogen sulphide), seasonal climate fluctuations, insolation. Among pastoralists meet diseases of the upper respiratory tract (rhinitis, laryngotracheitis) and the skin caused by constant contact working with animals and their excretions. Widely used nowadays for livestock farms machine-way milking have greatly improve the labour milkmaids and helped reduce the previously common diseases of the hands.