Sepsis in children

The most prone to cause sepsis of newborn infants, because of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the body (the weakness of the immune and enzyme reactions, the propensity to generalization of pathological processes, the immaturity of the Central nervous system). Often agents of sepsis are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, E. coli, less frequently, pneumococci, meningococci, gonorrhea, and other microbes. The introduction of microorganisms can occur in-utero, during delivery, the ingestion of infected amniotic fluid, often after birth. Entrance gate of the infection, the skin, the umbilical cord or umbilical wound, the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. Sources of infection of the child are sick mother, staff, nursing, food.
On a place of introduction of infection develops purulent inflammation in the form of pyoderma, otitis, pneumonia, etc. depending on the entrance gate distinguish sepsis umbilical, otogenny, skin, gastrointestinal, and so on, Local process becomes common in children with reduced reactivity of the organism, with weak immune response. After the penetration of the infection in the body incubation period (see) lasts 5-10 days.
Septicaemia is characterized by sharply intoxication. The child refuses the breast, not putting on weight; there is vomiting, skin pale-grey colour, is celebrated cyanosis naso-lip triangle. In a later phase joins hemorrhagic rash, often pastoznost or development of scleroma (diffuse seal skin and subcutaneous tissue). Heart sounds deaf, tachycardia (see), enlarged liver and spleen. With the defeat of umbilical vessels - expansion of the venous network on the skin of the abdomen, purulent discharge from the umbilical wounds. In result of intoxication affects the Central and autonomic nervous system. There are agitation, convulsions, meningeal symptoms or weakness. Often joined by pneumonia, diarrhea, chronic renal disease. In peripheral blood were observed anemia, leukocytosis, ROE accelerated, but it can also be normal.
Pyosepticemia characterized by the formation of metastatic purulent foci - purulent otitis, abstemiously pneumonia, cellulitis, arthritis, purulent meningitis, peritonitis, osteomyelitis, pericarditis, pleuritis.
Treatment of sepsis only in a hospital environment. Appropriate designation of two broad-spectrum antibiotics in high doses: penicillin children at the age up to 1 year over 100 000 - 200 000 IU per 1 kg of weight per day for older children but 40 000 - 50 000 UNITS per 1 kg of weight per day, signalizing 25 mg per 1 kg of weight per day, oleandomitin 30 000 UNITS per 1 kg of weight per day. Antibiotics should be changed after 7 to 10 days, apply them without interruption during 1,5-2 months, the duration of treatment is individual. Simultaneously with antibiotics shown sulfa drugs dose of 0.2 g per 1 kg of body weight per day for 8-10 days. To enhance the reactivity of the organism to child, blood transfusions, the plasma (5-8 ml per 1 kg of weight of a child in 2 days), make injections of gamma globulin (3.0 ml), vitamin B12 (30-50 mg) a day, assign ascorbic acid (0.1 g), vitamins B1, (0,005 grams) 3 times a day.
When deaf tones heart, fall in blood pressure appoint 0.25% solution of caffeine into 1 tea-spoon 5-6 times a day, subcutaneous injection 10-20% solution cordiamine 0.2-0.3 ml 3-4 times a day. Sick baby needs feeding a diet that contains adequate amounts of vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates.
The prognosis is very serious.