Heart surgery

Operations on the heart can be conducted as a therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. To diagnostic operations include puncture and sensing, using which it is possible to measure the pressure in cavity, study intracardiac hemodynamics, producing contrast examination of the heart, to decide on the choice of the type of intervention on the heart.
Diagnostic operations are conducted only in specialized departments, operating theatres, where there is everything necessary for providing immediate assistance in case of cardiac arrest. Operations are conducted with acquired and congenital heart defects. (comissurotomy, valvuloplasty, and so on).
Comissurotomy produce to resolve stenosis valve hole. This operation is to expand narrowed the hole with your finger or a special tool.
The valvuloplasty produce about insufficiency of the heart valves, when replacement of a changed heart valves.
Surgical treatment of congenital heart disease in most cases it is extremely difficult and requires off the heart from blood circulation. In this case, applying the apparatus of artificial blood circulation or hypothermia.
For operations on the heart of the necessary set of special tools (Fig. 4).
Treatment success is ensured proper care for the patient in the postoperative period. In the house the patient should be established inhalation of oxygen through a thin catheter is introduced into the nose and connected to an oxygen plant. A drainage tube inserted during surgery in the pleural cavity and in the pericardial cavity should be immediately connected to the suction system. In the postoperative period the patient is prescribed pain relievers (promedol 1 ml 2% solution 3-4 times a day subcutaneously in the first 2-3 days), cardiovascular drugs and antibiotics. The nurse should be directly in the recovery room. If the patient starts vomiting, turn patient head on one side, wipe with a gauze pad mouth, offering the patient to take a few deep breaths with his mouth open. In a patient undergoing heart surgery, can long be low blood pressure, a nurse should every hour, and unsustainable pressure is more likely to measure blood pressure, to control the system transfusion solutions for and amount of blood flowing in the Bank on drainage. In case of allocation on drainage of a large number of blood, pointing to internal bleeding, you should immediately call a doctor.
In case if a patient is unable to urinate, nurse (as instructed by the doctor) lowers the urine catheter. In patients after heart surgery extremely fast can develop bedsores, therefore it is necessary to closely monitor the condition of the skin.
The drainage of the pleural cavity extract on 2-3rd day. The next day after the operation, patients give liquid food (yogurt, juices, tea), satisfactory work of the intestines solid foods allowed on the 3-4th day. At intestines swelling on 2-3rd day put a cleansing enema. On the 3rd day the patient is transferred to the floor and on 6-8 day allow them to go. The patient is prescribed physical therapy.tools for heart surgery

Fig. 4. Tools for operations on the heart and great vessels: 1 and 2-anoressizzanti for chest cavity (1 - large, 2 - medium); 3 - sternotomy; 4 - scissors, curved, blunt; 5-7 - valvulotomy (5 - with a diamond-shaped knives, 6 - blade knives, 7 - with two parallel blades); 8 and 9 - allow (8 - semicircular, 9 - circular); 10-clip eye of the heart; 11-needle clamp for wounds and aneurysm of heart; 12 - clips partial pressure side vessels (left and right); 13 - clip framework for aneurysms of the aorta and heart; 14 and 15 - clips-dissector vascular (14-curved, 15 - with a straight handle); 16 - needle to puncture the heart; 17 - vascular scissors (left to right curves, curved on the plane, curved on edge, direct); 18 - scarificator; 19 - turnstile flexible; 20 - tongs to capture the eye of the heart; 21 - extender duplanty.