Research methods heart

In the study of the heart apply anamnesis, basic physical methods of investigation (inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation) and special instrumental and functional methods of research of the cardiovascular system.
The questions begin with the definition of the specific complaints. An important symptom of heart disease is shortness of breath (see) arising circulatory failure. In the initial stages of heart failure shortness of breath occurs only if the physical work, later - at the slightest physical effort and even at rest. Sometimes shortness of breath occurs suddenly and reaches the degree of suffocation (see Cardiac asthma).
A frequent complaint is pain in the heart area. They can occur as a result of insufficient blood supply to heart muscle while breast toad, myocardial infarction, severe anemia and other Pain in the heart when breast-toad appear pristupoobrazna, usually localized in the chest, give to the left arm, the left shoulder and the neck. Myocarditis, pericarditis the, heart neurosis, aneurysm of aorta , and others have also observed a pain, but of a different nature. Pain in the heart area can occur in diseases of other organs: the ulcer and stomach cancer, diaphragmatic hernia, the defeat of intercostal nerves and so on
Often patients complain of palpitations (see), sometimes feel a disruption of the heart that are associated with the disorder of heart rhythm (see heart Arrhythmia). Heartbeat is one of the first protective (compensatory) mechanisms arising from the weakening of the contractile forces of the heart. Later increased pressure in the pulmonary system and hollow veins and developing venous congestion.
If a patient with heart disease complains, in addition to shortness of breath, cough, and sometimes hemoptysis, it may indicate stagnation in the pulmonary circulation.
The appearance in patients with heart disease edema, pain in the right hypochondrium (increased liver), bloating, and sometimes nausea, vomiting, upset his chair and reducing the amount of urine may indicate venous congestion in large circulation.
In heart disease can occur, and General symptoms: weakness, fatigue, poor sleep, sometimes headaches, dizziness and fainting with loss of consciousness. The latter caused by the acute violation of cerebral circulation, which occurs during the narrowing of the aortic (see heart Defects), and Adams - Stokes syndrome Morgagni (see), transient flicker ventricle of the heart and other
After clarifying the complaints study the history of the disease, asking, when for the first time there were certain symptoms, what binds sick of their appearance; it is necessary to trace the development of the disease, learn about previously administered treatment and its effectiveness, and so on, also find out what diseases they had in the past, get to know his family history, their conditions of work and life.