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Diseases of the cardiovascular system

G. F. lang perfectly understood the importance and necessity of study of the cardiovascular system athlete to address some basic issues of General cardiology. He believed that, along with the study of the cardiovascular system of a sick person as an extreme degree of reduction of its functions, it is necessary to study the cardiovascular system athlete as extreme high level of functional state of the system.
The underlying concept G. F. lang view of physiological "athlete's heart", or the blood and pathological "athlete's heart", i.e. of the pathological changes in the circulatory system under various adverse conditions associated with sports activities, is increasing evidence that in the accumulated in the last time the actual material, and, in essence, is a sports cardiology.
A proper understanding of the physiological mechanisms of development of sports of the heart, i.e. hearts with high adaptive capacity, allows sports the doctor to make a difficult diagnosis of "healthy", assess the state of the cardiovascular system of the athlete and observe its favourable changes that appear when rationally conducted training load. A correct understanding of the ways and laws of development of pathological "athlete's heart" provides possibility of timely diagnostics, rational and early treatment and prevention of pre-pathological conditions and pathological changes of blood circulation system athletes, arising under various adverse conditions associated with sports activities. The complexity of these problems is determined by the fact that, as pointed out by G. F. lang, the transition from physiological to pathological "athletic heart" and the development of its failure occurs normally invisible to the athlete.
As you can see, tasks and content of sport cardiology very extensive and are purely clinical in nature.
The first and main task sports physician is accurate diagnostics of the cardio-vascular system, primarily the identification of any pathological changes. Only after that it is necessary to assess the state of its functions. In other words, high functional state of cardiovascular system of the athlete can be assessed positively only if it is based on absolute health.
The diagnosis of "healthy" in respect of the cardiovascular system is a difficult and complicated primarily because diagnosis of muscular change of heart and correct evaluation of systolic noise is still far from perfect.
The aim of this Chapter is not included analysis of the diagnosis changes of the myocardium. However, it is necessary to expand a little on the evaluation of the functional systolic noise in athletes. This is because the percentage of athletes with systolic noise (mainly at the apex of the heart) is, according to different authors, from 50 to 92.
The question of the proper clinical evaluation of systolic noise on the apex of the heart, although discussed in the literature more than half a century, however, is not solved yet, despite the fact that the practical importance of this question is obvious. Usually these noises are regarded either as a manifestation of mitral valve insufficiency, or as so-called functional noises that are known to be organic, muscle Genesis.